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VITAMINS – are group of unrelated organic compounds needed only in minute quantities in the diet but essential for specific metabolic reactions within cell and necessary for normal growth and maintenance of health. Vitamins do not have calorie value but they are necessary for energy utilization.

 Vitamins do not give the body energy. How ever if you are short of vitamins. They merely convert food into energy. You cannot increase physical capacity by taking extra vitamins.VITAMINS The word “vitamin” comes from a combination of the latin word “Vita” meaning life and the suffix “amine” which means a nitrogen compound. you may suffer fatigue.  .

. Ergosterol when radiated becomes vitamin D.TERMS ACCOUNTED FOR VITAMINS  Precursors of provitamins – are compounds that can be changed to the active vitamins   Ex. Carotenes cryptoxantin are precursor of vitamin A.  Preformed Vitamins – are naturally occurring vitamins that are inactive form and ready for its biological used.

Avitaminosis A leads to night blindness and xeropthalmin.   Hypervitaminosis – sometimes referred to as “vitamin toxicity” this condition is result of excessive accumulation of a vitamin in the body. Ex. .Avitaminosis –a condition resulting from lack of a vitamin in its later stage when more defined signs and symptoms occur such that a nutritional deficiency disease is recognizable. Avitaminosis C refers to scurvy and avitaminosis B is Beri-beri.

compounds – some substances have physiological roles like vitamins but they are present in larger amounts and are partially synthesized in the body. . Vitamin malnutrition – the prefix mal – meaning “bad” denotes that too much or too little is not good for the health. Avidin against Biotin and Thiaminase against thiamin or Vit B1. Lipoic Acid and Ubiquinone. They need to be similar in chemical composition as the vitamin it “antagonized”. These include Inositol. or Vitamin antagonist – are substance that interfere the normal functioning of a vitamin. Choline.   Vitamin-like  Antivitamins Ex Dicumerol against Vitamin K.

niacinamide Vit. B12 (9cyanocabalamin) Folasin (Folinic Acid.NOMENCLATURE OF THE VITAMINS ORIGINAL NAME Vitamin A (anti infective) CURRENT NAME Vitamin A (retinol) Vit. B complex Vit. B1 (thiamine) Riboflavin Vit. C Vit. D Vit. E Vit. K (meniquinonone and Phylloquinonones . E (Tocopherol) Vit.D (Calciferol) Vit. K Vit. C (B2) Pelagra Preventive Factor Niacin (nicotinic acid. ) Biotin Ascorbic Acid Vit. B1 (anti beri-beri antineuritic ) Vit. peroylglutamic acid. B6 (byridoxine) Vit.

 The word “vitamin” was originated by Casimir Funk in 1912 when he was coined from “vita” meaning necessary for life and “amine” denoting anti Beri-beri factor contained nitrogen.HISTORICAL BACKGROUND  Vitamins was normally called “accessory food factors” because their presence in minute quantities is easily overlooked. and rickets. He hypothesized that nutritional deficiencies which where observed in the past such as scurvy. Not all these dietary factor contained nitrogen hence the final letter “e” was dropped and we now have the word “Vitamin”. pellegra. . resulted from lack of “vitamine”.


Because they can be stored in the body. especially in ordinary cooking methods. 4. 3 They are not absolutely needed daily from food sources. criteria: 1.GENERAL PROPERTIES AND STABILITY  Besides solubility properties. 2. Based on the ff. Fat soluble vitamins generally have precursors or provitamins. They are generally stable. fat soluble vitamins differ from water soluble vits. . deficiencies are slow to develop.

GENERAL PROPERTIES  1. They are not stored significantly in the body and any excess is excreted in the urine.  4.WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS HAVE THE FF. They are most likely to be destroyed in ordinary cooking. Deficiency. Being water soluble .  3.  2. . Symptoms develop relatively fast. They do not have precursors.  5. They must be supplied every day in the diet.




Assure Reproduction and Lactation . Growth and bone development 5. growth and formation of tooth buds. Absorbed through lymphatic system and portal blood to liver. pigment found in green and yellow plants body converts Vit. Carotene converted to vit. >It is easy to destroy by oxidation and UV light. Anti Oxidant 4. A in intestinal wall. Absorption aided by bile salts. A – animal sources 2.cancer. >Vit. Vision Cycle 2. A to preserved it. A. E maybe used with Vit. Large storage capacity in liver hence. integrity of the skin and internal mucosa. 1. Beta carotene – phytochemical s found in dark green plants which is an anti. potential toxicity levels with large intake >Stable to light and heal but prolonged heating in contact with air destroys it. >A cool atmosphere and refrigeration tend to preserve it. (anti Aging) 3. hence. Epithelial tissue – necessary material for proper synthesis and maintenance of epithelial tissue. Provitamin A precursor carotene.Chemical and Physical Nature Absorption and Storage STABILITY PHYSIOLOGIC FUNCTION 1 Preformed Vit. pancreatic lipase and dietary fat.



The reaction involves the oxidation-reaction system of retinol-retinal and stereo chemical changes of vit. A molecule.  Retinal – is a prosthetic group of visual pigments of photo sensive pigments both rods (rhodopsia) and cones (iodopsia).  When there is a deficiency of Vit. A The rods and cones cannot adjust to light changes. A.  Rhodopsia . It is a light sensitive pigment in the retina enabling it to make adjustments to light and dark. resulting Color blindness and other defects of vision cannot be cured by vit.VISION CYCLE – necessary component of visual purple .

Hypercarotenimia – from the ingestion of large amount of foods containing carotene merely results in deposition of carotene in tissues. A. In young girls there is a cessation of menstruation 8. Yellow fruits of foreign origin reach in Vit. Most critical in avitaminosis. Coarse sparse hair 6. The site of dermal changes – thighs. peaches and nectarines .Skin Lesions Characterized as “foods skin” clinically known as pharynoderma. FOOD SOURCES Preformed Vit. the skin is dry and rough with popular eruption occurring around the hair follicles. and gives the person a disturbing yet harmless orange appearance . Thickening of the skin with peeling off 4.animal sources (liver.gabi. A. saluyot . alugbati . Swollen painful long bones 5. Enlargement of the spleen and liver. Eye lesions. 3. Faulty skeletal and dental development. kamote kangkong. A are apricots. A are common foods that are ideal carriers of Vit.DEFICIENCY 1. 2. kalabasa . Retarded growth 4. clams. TOXICITY 1. Violent headache 2.spinaka. abdomen. >the cornea of the eye affected early. “tahong” and other shell fish Precursors of Provitamin A – green yellow vetables dark green leaves of malunggay. Results to: Poor adaptation or night blindness.ampalaya are among philippine favorites. upper arm and back. Disturbances in the respiratory. 6. 5. Lower resistance to infection. 7. GI and genitourinary tracts 8. Fishes – dilis. Keratinization of epithelial linings. Nausea and vomiting 3. particularly the skin and eyes. 7. pechay. egg yolk milk cream butter and cheese) Fotified margarine or skim milk fortified with vit.

It is important for the maintenance of its transparency to ensure proper vision. . covering the eye.Functions of cornea to the eye are: creating smooth refractive surface – in order for image to focus properly on retina permeability barrier barrier entry of pathogen – shield the eye from harmful germs. dust and other foreign matter CORNEA is the transparent membrane opening on the front part. It has No blood vessels. Consist of 22% solid and 78% water.


Hypercarotenimia .