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a burner whose maximum input is 250. In order to get proper combustion.000 Kcals and minimum rate is 50. Figure 1. it becomes necessary to increase the excess air amounts to obtain enough turbulence to get proper mixing. the air molecules must be thoroughly mixed with the fuel molecules before they actually burn. The air is brought into the head by means of a forced draft blower or fan.4 shows a simplified burner head.4 Burner Head . more readily will the particles come in contact with the oxygen in the air and burn. Towards the highest turndown ratios of any burner. atomisation is carried out by primary air and completion of combustion is ensured by secondary air. If insufficient turbulence is produced by the burner. The primary function of burner is to atomise fuel to millions of small droplets so that the surface area of the fuel is increased enabling intimate contact with oxygen in air. Turndown ratio is the relationship between the maximum and minimum fuel input without affecting the excess air level.e. The better burner design will be one that is able to properly mix the air and fuel at the lowest possible air flow or excess air. has a ‘Turn-Down Ratio’ of 5 to 1. it becomes harder and harder to get good fuel and air mixing at higher turndown ratios since the air amount is reduced. The air in the center is the primary air used for atomization and the one surrounding is the secondary air which ensures complete combustion. The fuel is metered into the head through a series of valves. atomisation. Figure 1. the combustion will be incomplete and samples taken at the stack will reveal carbon monoxide as evidence. Burners for fuel oil can be classified on the basis of the technique to prepare the fuel for burning i. Since the velocity of air affects the turbulence. An important aspect to be considered in selection of burner is turndown ratio. The mixing is achieved by burner parts designed to create high turbulence. For example. Normally.The burner is the principal device for the firing of fuel.000 Kcals. The finer the fuel droplets are atomised.

Don’t confuse turndown to “fully modulating” burners. There is enough stored energy in the system to take up the small fluctuations at that point.500 $19. but the turndown ratio of a burner has a big affect as well. ignition transformers. is like having a car that can only go between speeds of 59 MPH and 100 MPH.500 $20. we have seen steam pressures drop from 100 psig at burner shut down to about 40 psig before the burner comes on again. Even on hot water heating systems. That can cause terrific problems in a manufacturing plant that depends on constant steam pressure.000 $18. the pressure or temperature falls off. The first is the operating cost of the burner. etc. If the burner stays on. they don't have to turn on and off and therefore last longer. Every time the burner starts and stops there is a cost associated. You’d not only look silly. . Gas valves. It’s a “fully modulating” car all right but try driving it to the grocery store. it cycles on and off.500 Yearly Fuel Cost0 2 4 6 8 10 Turndown Ratio of BurnerEffect of Turndownon Fuel Cost Figure 5 Figure 5 shows how the turndown ratio of a burner impacts the fuel cost needed to run a 100 horsepower boiler for heating. those fluctuations are eliminated because the burner tracks the load down to the point where it shuts off only when the load is very slight. Valves hunt and temperature control becomes erratic. Maintenance costs are reduced with a high turndown burner because there is much less thermal cycling taking place in the boiler.There are several strong reasons why high turndown and low excess air are important.000 $20.000 $19. the operating cost savings can range from 10% to 15% below a brand new burner that doesn’t have those characteristics. These purges make the boiler work like a chiller because it takes energy out of the system. When you combine the effects of low excess air and high turndown. Although those materials are built to take it. but think of the how the gas mileage would drop! $18. When off. Process control is enhanced with a high turndown. Two other reasons for having a high turndown relate to lowered maintenance cost and better process or heating control. their life is prolonged if everything stays the same temperature. If the load is smaller than the burner can turn down to. control problems occur because of low turndown boilers. When a burner cycles. the refractory and metal parts expand and contract. On some boilers. You’ve seen how excess air affects the operating cost.7 to 1. are all less prone to fail if they never have to cycle. Air is always blown through the boiler to assure that there is no unburned fuel remaining. With a high turndown. Having a fully modulating burner with only the typical turndown of 1.

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It is composed mostly ofcarbon. sulphur and other impurities such as ash. metals. Heavy fuel oil is a by-product or residue—along withasphalt—of the distillation process. .What is heavy fuel oil? Heavy fuel oil (HFO) is a black. and water. hydrogen. HFO is obtainedfrom the petroleum distillation process after other lighter petroleum products such as gasolineand kerosene have been distilled off. low-grade fuel of tar-like consistency.

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