Introduction to SAP

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Business without ERP
Purchasing
Customer Calls to place order for a Car

Customers

PP contacts Purchasing for raw material

4

1

Sales office/Inventory contacts PP

Production Planning
3

3
Sales office contacts Inventory

2

Sales

Inventory

Business without ERP (Contd..)
Lets add some more Business Processes

Business without ERP (Contd..)
Customers
Where is my car Whom to contact for status? What is Cost and profit

What is this confusion What to manufactur e??

Production Planning

Sales

Shop floor Finance

Purchasing Vendors Inventory

Lets Deliver the end product to customer..
I did not order for a TRUCK!!!!

Dear Sir, Your Order…

Sales

Business without ERP (Contd..)
I AM NOT TAKING DELIVERY AND WILL NEVER DEAL WITH YOU!

We are SORRY Sir

Sales

Overall Picture
Vendors

Sales General Ledger

Purchasing

Customers

A/R

A/P

Production Planning Inventory Shop Floor Execution

Why Enterprise Why Enterprise Architecture ? Architecture
Numerous disparate information systems Integrating the data becomes costly
  

Time Money Resources

Inconsistencies and duplication of

Enterprise Structure – Integrating Business
Marketing FA Treasury GL Shop Floor Sales AP Purchasing AR Plants PP HR Payroll

Partner Systems

Mfg.

Enterprise Architecture Benefits
Eliminates the duplication, discontinuity and redundancy in data Increases the return on investment made on IT implementations Delivers quality information designed for the Enterprise as a whole Faster and cheaper Delivers quality information to produce a quality enterprise E R P Satisfying Partners/Customers

Quiz Time
What is the full form of SAP? When was SAP founded?

Quiz Time
What is the full form of SAP?
Systems Applications and Products in Data Processing

When was SAP founded?
Founded in 1972 by Wellenreuther, Hopp,

History of SAP
Systems Applications and Products in Data Processing
German : Systeme, Anwendungen, Produkte in der Datenverarbeitung

Founded in 1972 by Wellenreuther, Hopp, Hector, Plattner and Tschira
Renamed in 1977 Before 1977 : Systems Analysis and Program Development (German : Systemanalyse und Programmentwicklung)

ERP
En te rprise R esource Pla nning Enterprise Inter-Enterprise is evolved Resource through these Planning Co-operation stages …
Collaborative Business

Create Strategic Value

Total Company Value Automation

Efficiency and Control

80’s R/2

90’s R/3

Today mySAP ERP

Evolution of ERP

Has Been Driving ERP – and They Continue to Do So…
ERP Rapid Adoption
Companies start to adopt ERP on a massive scale

mySAP ERP
E-Business is now seen as an extension of ERP, not a replacement. SAP is leading the new industry standard for collaborative business applications.

Dot.com Hype: ERP = Old E-Business = New ERP = The Business Software Industry
The approach that SAP established becomes industry standard. New competitors enter the market. Trends seemed to indicate that ERP was an out-offashion model

SAP Invents Real-Time ERP
SAP defines and establishes a new approach to Integrated Standard Business Software.

70s

80s

90s

00s

Evolution of SAP

Quiz Time
SAP R/3 client server architecture evolved in year___________. Which is the latest SAP product?
mySAP ERP

Quiz Time
SAP R/3 client server architecture evolved in year 1992 Which is the latest SAP product?
mySAP ERP

SAP R/3 Architecture

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3 Tier Client / Server Architecture
The SAP R/3 architecture is based on a 3-tier client/server principle Presentation Server Application Server Database Server Dedicated Servers are linked by

SAP R/3 System Architecture (Contd...2)

Overview of Presentation & Database Servers
The Presentation Server
GUI only At workstation Very light Sends requests to application server Obtains screens from application server and displays

The Database Server
Interface between application server and RDBMS

SAP R/3 Conceptual Areas
SAP Conceptual Areas

Application Area
(Initiate and execute SAP transactions) (Functional)

Basis Area
(The technical administration of the system) (Authorizations/Ids/etc)

Development Area
(1. A developer’s workbench 2. Create & Test ABAP/4 programs) (Technical)

Transport Request

Systems in R3
Development System (DC) Quality System (QC) Production System (IC)

Client 110 100 etc..

Clients in R/3
The Logon Client
3 digit number ( 000 to 999) Helps maintain independent sets of data within the same R/3 system

Client mechanism and handling

Clients in R/3

R/3 Technology Environment
Hardware
UNIX Systems Bull IBM Digital SNI HP SUN Bull/Zenith Compaq Data General ...

Digital NCR HP (Intel) Sequent IBM (Intel) SNI

IBM AS/400

IBM S/390

Operating AIX Reliant systems Digital UNIX UNIX (SINIX)
HP-UX SOLARIS ADABAS D DB2 for AIX INFORMIX-OnLine ORACLE

Windows NT

OS/400

OS/390

Databases

ADABAS D MS SQL Server INFORMIX-OnLine ORACLE

DB2 for OS/400

DB2 for OS/390

Dialog SAPGUI Languages

Windows 3.1, Windows 95, Windows NT, OSF/Motif *, OS/2 Presentation Manager (PM), Macintosh *, Java ABAP/4, C, C++, HTML, Java

Platforms and Databases supported by R/3
Operating Systems AIX SINIX SOLARIS HP-UX Digital Unix Windows NT Supported Hardware IBM SNI SUN Digital HP Bull Supported Front ends Win 3.1/ 95 / NT OSF / Motif OS/2 Macintosh Supported Databases DB2 for AIX Informix – Online Oracle 7.1 ADABAS D Oracle 7.1 SQL Server 6.0 ADABAS D

OS/400

AT&T Win 3.1 / 95 Compaq / NT Bull / Zenith OSF / Motif HP (Intel) OS/2 SNI Macintosh IBM (Intel) Digital AS/400 Win 95 OS/2

DB2/400

Client Server Benefit

Quiz Time Presentati
on Server Application Server 3 Digit number Client Testing/ Unix UAT Systems Authorizati ons

Match the following
Basis

Windows Quality System GUI Oracle Client Business Administra tion

Quiz Time Presentati
on Server Application Server 3 Digit number Client Testing/ Unix UAT Systems Authorizati ons

Match the following
GUI Business Administra Client tion Quality System Windows (QC) Basis

SAP R/3 Modules

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SAP Modules
SD – Sales and Distribution MM – Materials Management PP – Production Planning

FI – Financial Accounting

SD MM PP

FI CO AM

CO – Controlling AM – Asset Management

QM
QM – Quality Management PM – Plant Maintenance WM – Warehouse Management

SAP R/3
PM WM PS WF

HR
HR – Human Resources WF – Workflow PS – Project System

SAP R/3 Application Financial accounting (FI) Modules
Controlling (CO) Asset management (AM) Materials management (MM) Sales and Distribution (SD) Production Planning (PP) Quality management (QM) Plant maintenance (PM) & Customer

Module Functionalities

MM Material Procurement Inventory Management Batch Management Goods inspection Invoice Verification

PP BOM/Work Center/Routing MRP Capacity Evaluations Production Orders QM in production

SD Inquiry processing Sales Order Processing Delivery Processing Billing

FI General Ledger Accounts Payable Accounts receivable Cash management

CO Cost Center Accounting Product Costing Order Contribution Analysis

Quiz Time Financial
Accounting Controlling Materials Manageme Sales & nt Distribution Production Planning Project System

Match the following

Inventory Manageme Shop Floor nt Control Financial Reporting Profit center Billing Accounting Activity monitoring Asset Manageme

Quiz Time Financial
Accounting Controlling Materials Manageme Sales & nt Distribution Production Planning Project System

Match the following

Asset Manageme Profit nt center Inventory & Financial Accounting Manageme Reporting Billing nt Shop Floor Control Activity monitoring

Module FI – Financial Accounting
• External reporting of
• • • General ledger Accounts receivable/payable Sub-ledger accounts

with a user-defined Chart of Accounts • Key elements
• • • • • • • General ledger Accounts payable Accounts receivable Asset Management Special Purpose Ledger (FI-SL) Legal consolidation Accounting Information System

Financial Accounting
Foreign exchange management Finance information system Bank

Management of secureties and loans

Cash management and forecast

Accounts payable
Payables

Bank accounts Receivables

Accounts receivable

General Ledger
Invoice verification Extended General Ledger
Consolidation

Credit management

Module CO – Controlling
• • • Represents the flow of cost and revenue Instrument for organizational decisions Key elements of the CO application module include :
• • • • • • • Cost center accounting Product cost Planning Product Costing Profitability analysis Profit center accounting Activity based costing Enterprise controlling

Module SD – Sales and Distribution
• Optimize tasks/activities in
• • • Sales Delivery Billing

Key elements of the SD application module include :
• • • • • • • • • Pre-sales support Inquiry processing Quotation processing Sales order processing Delivery processing Warehouse management Billing Credit Management Sales Information system

SALES INFORMATION SYSTEM

Sales Support Sales and Distribution Processing Sales
Sales activity Inquiry Quotation Delivery free of charge Subsequent delivery free of charge Sales order Returns Contract Scheduling agreement

MATERIALS MANAGEMENT

USD

Shipping
Delivery

Billing
Debit memo Invoice Credit memo

FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING

Module MM – Materials Management
• Supports
• • Procurement Inventory

Key elements
• • • • • • • • Materials procurement (purchasing) Inventory management Invoice verification Material valuation Vendor evaluation External Services management Purchasing Information System (PurchIS) Inventory Controlling Information system

BASIC DATA

Vendor/one-time customer Purchasing info record Service specifications Workflow Optical archive Texts Mail Communication Classification Documents Conditions

 RFQ/Quotation
  

Purchasing information system Vendor evaluation

Material Special stock Batch

Materials Management
PURCHASING
  

 Purchase requisition
MRP Direct requisition Release procedures

SD

Third-party order Requirements

PP PM

Material/service Price comparisons Price comparison list Purchase orders Outline agreements Scheduling agreements

 Purchasing
  

Service/ Spare Parts Service / Inspection QM spare parts lot G/L accounts Cash management and forecast Fixed assets Cost center / Budget Project

FI AM CO PS

INVENTORY MANAGEMENT
    

Goods receipt/issue Transfer posting Quantities and values Physical inventory Storage bins

INVOICE VERIFICATION
 

Check and post Price update

Module PP – Production Planning
• • To plan and control the manufacturing activities Key elements
• • • • • • • • • • • • • Bill of Material (BOM) Routings Work Centers Sales and Operations planning (SOP) Master Production Scheduling (MPS) – Capacity Planning Materials Requirement Planning (MRP) Shop Floor Control (SFC) Production orders Product costing, activity-based costing Work in process Kanban Production planning for process industries (PP-PI) Repetitive Manufacturing

Production Planning
Customers
Sales Shipping Billing SD

SD PP

Sales and Operations Planning Demand management / MPS Material requirements planning Detailed Schedeling and Planning Capacity planning Shop floor control Costing Information system

Project Networks

PS SD

PM SD Maintenance Repairs Plant maintenance QM SD Inbound Raw Material Finished Goods

Vendors

MM SD Purchasing Warehouse Invoice verification

FI

Financial accounting

CO

Cost accounting

HR

Human resources

Module QM – Quality Management
• Supports
• • • • • Quality planning Inspection Control for manufacturing Costing Procurement

Key elements
• • • • Quality planning Quality during procurement, production, distribution Quality Management Information - Quality inspection Information System (QMIS)

Module PS – Project System & HR – Human Resource
• PS – Project Systems
• Support planning, control, & monitoring of long term highly complex projects with defined goals • Project WBS – Plan • Budget & Monitor • Network Management • Activity monitoring, Material Planning, Milestones, Capacities Scheduling • Project Management Information System

• Key elements

HR – Human Resource
• Key elements • Recruitment • Payroll & Time management • Travel Expense accounting & Benefits • Workforce planning & Training administration • Organization management

Module WF – Work Flow
• • • To integrate SAP R/3 with cross-applications Support tool for all modules Automates business process
• • • As events occur that trigger a process, the Workflow manager initiates a Workflow item Using the process logic, data and documents are incorporated at each step Using the processing rules, the Workflow manager routes the item to the appropriate role (location, person, unit, etc....).

Example:
• Posting a PO will trigger automated mail to sales support for customer service.

Quiz Time
Is Industry solutions an SAP module like FI/CO/MM etc? True/False
PP Supports procurement and Inventory FI Handles project budgeting and

Quiz Time Is SAP - Industry solutions a
module like FI/CO/MM etc? NO True/False
PP Supports procurement and Inventory (False – MM Supports these functions) FI Handles project budgeting and monitoring (False – PS handles these functions)

IS – Industry Solutions
• Combines SAP R/3 application modules to additional industryspecific functionality • Result of the research by industry Centers expertise (ICOE)

mySAP Industry Solutions SAP for Aerospace & (Some Examples) Defense
SAP for Media SAP for Automotive SAP for Mill Products SAP for Banking SAP for Mining SAP for Chemicals SAP for Oil & Gas SAP for Consumer Products SAP for Pharmaceuticals SAP for Engineering, SAP for Healthcare SAP for Public Sector SAP for High Tech SAP for Retail SAP for Higher Education & Research SAP for Service Providers SAP for Industrial Machinery & Components SAP for

SAP Product Overview

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Evolution of SAP products
Solutions mySAP CRM mySAP SCM mySAP HR mySAP PLM ………..

mySAP ERP R/3 Enterprise
Web AS

mySAP Business Suite

R/3

SAP NetWeaver

•Easing Upgrade Plans & Providing Transition Options •Bringing benefits of SAP Netweaver into installed base •New Customers have more entry options & receive world –class ERP

Evolution of SAP products

SAP R/3

my SAP Solutions

my SAP Business Suite

SAP R/3
Financials HR Corporate Services

Operations

mySAP Solutions
mySAP PLM mySAP SCM

mySAP Financials
mySAP CRM

mySAP HR Corporate Services Operations

mySAP SRM

Adaptive Business Solutions

SAP R/3

my SAP Business Suite
mySAP PLM mySAP SCM mySAP mySAP SRM mySAP Financials mySAP HR Corporate Services Operations CRM

SAP NetWeaver Application Platform ( Web As) People Integration (Portal) Information Integration( BI,MDM) Process Integration (XI)

mySAP Solutions & Netweaver
mySAP CRM mySAP SRM mySAP SCM mySAP PLM

My SAP Customer Relationship Management (CRM)

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CRM Solution Map

CRM – Holistic view

Where does a CRM solution fit?
Who What
Marketing Sales Service
Use a CRM Solution to complete the Cycle

Service

Executives

Engage

Fulfill Transact

Workpl ace Which way How
Internet Mobile Telephony

Operational

Analytical

Collaborative

mySAP.com Portal Users

CRM Component Landscape
CRM System As one big logical box

OLTP R/3 System

BW

Internet

Mobile Clients

Telephone Callers

APO

Enterprise

CRM Internet Sales
B2C Scenario Internetselling Consumer

BBP Scenario

Business Partner

B2R Scenario

Reseller

Service module within • Service Planning CRM

Proactively engage customers with the correct resources at the most beneficial times

Customer Care

Provide customer with 24/7 accessibility from all communication channels with precise and consistent informationon

Installed Base Management

Mobile Sales module Suite of tools tailored to the needs within CRM
of the offline mobile sales force
Provides an integrated view of customers, prospects, products, services, competitors, activities, opportunities, quotations, orders, etc. Heavy cross-referencing for easy navigation

Facilitates the sales process by

Quiz Time

What is the latest version of mySAP CRM Name the three service modules with in CRM

Quiz Time

What is the latest version of mySAP CRM (Version 5.0) Name three service modules with in CRM

My SAP Supplier Relationship Management (SRM)

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SRM Solution Map

Key Components of mySAP SRM
mySAP SRM – eProcurement mySAP SCE Supplier Collaboration Engine

• Enterprise Buyer Prof 3.5
• Business Inf. W’house 3.0B • Requisite Bugs Eye 3.5 • Requisite eMerge 3.5 • Enterprise Portal 5.0

• Supplier self services 1.0 • Bidding Engine 3.5 • User Management 3.0

Exchange Infrastructure

Content Integrator

Key Components of • Strategic Sourcing mySAP SRM

•Sourcing analytics: Helps provide analytics based on supplier location, line of business •Supplier evaluation: Helps you evaluate the supplier base within the organization systems and external market places to identify and select supplier to ensure reliable & uninterrupted supply •Request for quotation and auctions: Provides electronic auctioning and bidding tools to compress sourcing cycle times •Contract management: Helps create and manage value and quantity contracts

• Operational Procurement
•Self-service procurement: Enables decentralizing procurement process within organization, without diluting the control •Plan-driven procurement: Enables automatic purchase order generation for stock materials across the integrated supply chain •Services procurement: Enables service procurement process to be managed

online

Key Components of Supplier Enablement mySAP SRM….Contd.

•Supplier portal: Provides portal features for suppliers to manage their product data and orders •Supplier connectivity: Provides capability to connect multiple suppliers through XM_based document exchange

• Content Management
•Content consolidation: Provides capability to consolidate product and vendor information •Catalog content management: Provides capability to manage OCI compatible catalog with tools for data import, data edit and a search engine

Quiz Time

Name any one key component of mySAP SRM Solution map

Quiz Time

Name any one key component of mySAP SRM Solution map
Following are the three key components of mySAP SRM

My SAP Supply Chain Management (SCM)

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SCM – Solution Map

mySAP SCM
SAP APO (Advanced Planning and Optimizing)
Flexible and Adaptive Planning, Integration with CRM, SRM and PLM

SAP ICH (inventory Collaboration Hub)
Collaboration with Suppliers

SAP EM (Event Management)
Monitor, alert and resolve exceptions

Typical SAP SCM Solutionscape
SAP R/3
Dominant source of Master Data in SAP SCM, destination of transaction data like planning outputs or Availability Checks for Execution systems

SAP SCM Transaction Data Core Interface Master Data
Module includea Demand Planning, SNP & Deployment, PPDS, GATP, TPVS and TLB Planning system where selective Master data maintained and sourced from R/3

Core interface SAP CRM, SAP SRM and SAP PLM
Planning Outputs include Forecasts, SNP or PPDS Planned Orders, Stock Transfers and Production Orders

Legacy Systems

BAPI

One-on-One comparison
i2 Technolo gies Forecasti Demand (Tradema ng Planner/De trix SCM) mand ATP and Demand Manageme Fulfillmen Fulfillment nt t Material Supply and Chain Resource Planning Manufact Factory planning uring Planning Planning Transport TMS ation (Transport ation Manageme nt SAP SCM Manugisti cs (Network Demand Oracle Demand s SCM) Planner Demand Manageme Planner nt SAP GATP Oracle GOP Fulfillment (Global (Global Manageme ATP) Order nt SAP SNP Oracle Promising) Master (Supply ASCP Planning Network (Advanced PP/DS Oracle Manufactur Planning) SCP) (Production Manufactur ing Planning ing Planning TP/VS Oracle Logistics and Scheduling and (Transport Transporta Scheduling Manageme Detailed ation nt Scheduling tion Planning/V Solutions ) ehicle ORACLE APS

mySAP Product Life Cycle Management (PLM)

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PLM Solution Map

SAP Netweaver

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A Roadmap for Web Services

Services are changing SAP’s Product portfolio

From Basis to WAS

Integration is the Key Challenge
Business Drivers
Document Mgmt Call Center Market Analysis

Extended Value Network Increased Market Dynamics

Integration costs are high
Long integration projects IT environments become increasingly rigid Lots of heterogeneous systems
E-sales

SCM

ERP

Pressure on IT increases
Must leverage existing investments Must support new business processes quicker Must reduce total cost of ownership (TCO)

Trading E-procurement Technical systems PLM

How to Address the Integration Challenge Reduce Complexity
• Minimize the number of connections
through hubs
Document Mgmt Call Center Market Analysis

•Use only one platform to integrate all people, information, and systems

Reduce Cost Integration
SCM ERP

•Deliver .NET and J2EE interoperability •Deliver adaptors for ISV products •Deliver products, not projects

E-sales

Increase company performance
•Increase ease of use, scalability and adaptability

Trading Technical systems PLM

E-procurement

•Increase business process flexibility by using an Enterprise Services Architecture

The fundamental Web services standards are supported by the Web Application Server (Web AS), which is the basis for all other NetWeaver components

The integration and application platform for lower TCO Unifies and aligns people,
information and business processes
Integrates across technologies and organizational boundaries A safe choice with full .NET and J2EE interoperability

The Business foundation for SAP and partners
 Powers business-ready solutions that reduce custom integration It’s Enterprise Services Architecture increases business process flexibility

View)
SAP Mobile Infrastructure SAP Enterprise Portal
Business packages Collaboration Tight coupling and alignment with SAP business solutions

Product components and SAP NetWeaver killer features
People Integration Composite Application Framework
Multi-channel Access Portal Collaboration

SAP Business information Warehouse
Business content Tight integration to Sap Open architecture (Crystal, Accential )

Life cycle Management

Information Integration
Bus. Intelligence Knowledge Mgmt Master Data Management

Master Data Management
Coming in 2003

Process Integration
Integration Broker Business Process Management

SAP Exchange Infrastructure
Proxy generation and mapping tools Integration directory SAP’s ability to execute

Application Platform
J2EE ABAP Multi-channel Access

SAP Web Application Server
Proven, scalable, comprehensive toolsets Leverage existing infrastructure/skillets

Business content makes the business foundation

SAP Organizational units

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Business Scenarios – Main Elements

Organizational Structure in SAP

Production Planning

Financial Accounting
Company Code

Plant

Controlling
Controlling Area

Client

Human Resources
Personnel Area

Sales and Distribution
Sales Area

Materials Management
Purchasing Organization

Company Code

Organizational Structure Levels

Organizational Structure – Business Functions

Enterprise Structure Technology

SAP Organizational Structure: Cardinality
Client Chart of Accounts
Purchasing Group

Company Code

Purchasing Org.

Plant

Sales Organ.

Shipping Point

Storage Location

Distribution Channel

Sales Office

Sales Group

Loading Point

Division

Quiz Time
Which is not a part of SAP Business Scenario main Elements
Master Data Organizational Unit Transaction Document All the above

Answer True or False

Quiz Time

Which is not a part of SAP Business Scenario main Elements
Master Data Organizational Unit Transaction Document All the above

Answer True or False
One Chart of accounts can be assigned to many Company Codes

Organizational Elements in FICO

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Organizational Units in R/3 FI

Overview: Organizational Elements in Accounting

Organizational Elements in Logistics

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Overview: Organizational Elements in Logistics

Quiz Time
State True/False
Company is obligatory in an organization structure

Fill in the blank
Unit responsible for procurement of

Quiz Time
State True/False
Company is obligatory in an organization structure (False – Company code is obligatory)

Fill in the blank
Unit responsible for procurement of

Organizational Elements in Sales

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Quiz Time
Fill in the blanks Sales area is a combination of _____________, ________________ and _______________.

Quiz Time
Fill in the blanks Sales area is a combination of
Sales Organization, Division and Distribution Channel

Navigation

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Logging on to SAP System
Logon pad with different systems

Adding to favorites
Steps to add transaction to favorites Step I: Select the transaction you want to add to favorites Step II: Right click on the transaction you want to add to favorites Step III: Select Add to favorites.

General Settings

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Global Settings (at Variants Country level)
Calendar Public Holidays Holiday Calendar Factory Calendar Unit of Measurements Currencies Currency codes Conversions (quotations)

The Variant Principle

Calendar Holidays Define Public
Define Holiday Calendar
A combination of a yearly 12-month calendar and a list of all public holidays that fall within a calendar year. Gives an overview of all working days and all days off for a calendar year. It can be created to cover a validity period of several years.

Define Factory Calendar Calendar
Calendar in which working days are numbered sequentially. Defined on the basis of a public holiday calendar. Validity period of a factory calendar must be within the validity period of the public holiday calendar. The weekdays that are working days must also be specified in this calendar. Examples:

Enables calculations with Unit of measurement quantities and physical units. Units of measurement are needed for internal conversions (such as kilogram <-> gram, but also centimeter <-> inch). The international system of units (SI) is used for this. UOMs are held centrally in the SAP

Currencies
Legal means of payment in a country. You can manage ledgers in two parallel currencies in addition to the local currency

Currency codes Currency settings SAP maintains about 187 currencies. If any transaction in a new currency will happen for the organization, that currency to be maintained Standard quotation Can specify direct or indirect quotation. System by default will

Exchange Rate Type is used for Exchange Rate Type different business purposes where multiple rates can be maintained for a pair of currencies The following exchange rate types exist
Buying rate (G) Bank selling rate (B) Average rate (M) Historical exchange rate

Exchange rates in Exchange Ratethe system for the following purposes
Posting and Clearing To translate amounts posted or cleared in foreign currency, or to check a manually entered exchange rate during posting or clearing. Exchange Rate Differences To determine gains or losses from exchange rate differences.

Quiz Time
Fill in the blank

The difference between ____________ and ____________ is called spread. SAP maintains ___________ number

Quiz Time
Fill in the blank

The difference between Buying rate and Selling rate is called spread.

Thank You!

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