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FINISHING AND POLISHING

IN RESTORATIVE
DENTISTRY

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Contents

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Introduction

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Rationale of finishing and


polishing

health in
Why theOral
interest
finishing and polishing
Function
in dentistry?
Aesthetics

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Objectives of Finishing
and Polishing

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What do we mean by
Finishing and Polishing?

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Definitions

Dental clinics of North America, 2007, 51, 379-397

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Dental clinics of North America, 2007, 51, 379-397

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Principles of Cutting, Grinding,


Finishing and Polishing

Anusavice, Phillips Science of Dental Materials, eleventh edition

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Bryant RW, Collins CJ. Finishing techniques for amalgam restorations:


clinical assessment at three years. Aust Dent J 1992 oct; 37(5): 333-9
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Anusavice, Phillips Science of Dental


Materials, eleventh edition
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Anusavice, Phillips Science of Dental


Materials, eleventh edition
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Anusavice, Phillips Science of Dental


Materials, eleventh edition
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Anusavice, Phillips Science of Dental


Materials, eleventh edition
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Abrasion

Anusavice, Phillips Science of Dental Materials, 11th edition


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PRINCIPLES OF TRIBIOLOGY RELATIVE


TO DENTAL ABRASIVE SCIENCE

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3-BODY WEAR LOOSE


ABRASIVE
POLISHING:
1. Aluminum Oxide
Polishing Paste
2. Diamond Polishing
Pastes

2-BODY WEAR :
1. Trimming and Abrading
Burs
2. Bonded Abrasives
3. Coated Abrasives for
Finishing and Polishing

The
Tribiology of
Dental
Finishing and
Polishing

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Erosion

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Phases in dental
finishing procedure

Final
polishing

Intermediate
Finishing and
Polishing

Gross Reduction,
Coarse Finishing
and Margination
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Original
rough
surface

20 mm
Coarse
Finished

Significant
material
removal

New surface
approximates
abrasive size

2 mm

0.2 mm

Fine
Finished

Polished

Fine grooves

Smearing and
burnishing to
smoothen surface

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Factors affecting Finishing and


Polishing

Structure and
mechanical
properties of
substrate

Lubrication
used during
application of
abrasive

Speed and
pressure with
which
abrasive is
applied to
substrate

Factors
affecting
finishing
and
polishing

Difference
between
hardness of
abrasive and
substrate

Physical
properties of
the backing or
bonding
material

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What is Microabrasion?

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Difference between microabrasion and


bleaching

MICROABRASION
Improves tooth color
by eliminating
superficial discolored
enamel

BLEACHING
It lightens the tooth color
and preserves the intact
fluoride rich layer of
enamel and tooth shape

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Micro abrasion

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Before

After

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Macro abrasion

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Burnishing

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Health hazards during


finishing and polishing

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Dental Materials at a glance, J. Anthony Von Fraunhofer

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Abrasives
Abrasive-A hard substance used for grinding, finishing, or
polishing a less-hard surface.

Classification by
Craig

Finishing
Abrasive
Polishing
Abrasive
Cleansing
Abrasive
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Abrasives
Classification by Skinners

Natural
abrasives
Arkansas stone
Chalk, corundum
Diamond, tripoli,
zirconium silicate

Emery,garnet,
pumice, quartz,
sand, cuttle,
Kieselguhr

Manufactured
abrasives
Silicon carbide,
aluminum
oxide, synthetic
diamond

Rouge and tin


oxide

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Desirable qualities of an
Abrasive

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Dental Materials at a glance, J.


Anthony Von Fraunhofer

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Abrasive Particle Sizes as per Anusavice


Grit/Mesh

Aluminum oxide,
silicon carbide
and garnet (m)

Coated disc
grade

Diamond m

Diamond bur
grade and
diamond
polishing paste

120

142

Coarse

142

Supercoarse coarse

150

122

122

Coarse regular

180

70-86

86

Coarse regular

240

54-63

60

Fine

320

29-32

52

Fine

400

20-23

40

Fine superfine
coarse finishing

600

12-17

14

Superfine
medium finishing

800

9-12

Ultrafine fine
finishing

1200

2-5

Milling pastes

1500

1-2

Polishing pastes
(2-5 m)

2000

Polishing pastes
(2-5 m)

Medium

Fine

Super fine

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Classification

Particle size Grit size

Particle size m

Extra coarse

60-100

>125

Coarse

100-140

105-125

Medium

140-200

70-105

Fine

200-280

50-70

Superfine

280-800

30-50

Microfine

800-2000

10-30

Polishing Paste

>14000

<1

Dental Materials at a glance, J.


Anthony Von Fraunhofer
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Factors Influencing the


Efficiency of Abrasive

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Instruments and techniques for gross reduction and


contouring of dental restorations

Diamonds
Fluted
Finishing burs
Abrasive
Finishing Discs
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Intermediate Finishing
and Initial Polishing
Coated abrasive
disc

Bonded abrasive
devices
Fine diamonds and
multifluted
finishing burs
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Final Finishing and


Polishing
Extra fine
Coated
Abrasive
Loose
abrasive
polishing
paste
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Abrasive Instrument design

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Bonded Abrasives

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Abrasive discs

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Abrasive Strips

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Coated Abrasives

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Methods to assess the effectiveness of


finishing systems and devices

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Profilometer

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Finishing And Polishing Of


Amalgam Restorations

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Burnishing of amalgam
restorations

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Precarve
burnishing

Postcarve
burnishing

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Finishing and Polishing of


Composite Restorations

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Composite Finishing and


Polishing Kit

Composite Finishing Kit

Sof-Lex TM
Contouring and
Polishing Discs

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Enhance Finishing
and Polishing System

PoGo one-step diamond


micro-polishers

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Comparison of different finishing/polishing systems


on surface roughness and gloss of resin composites

J Dent. 2011 Jan

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Effect of different finishing techniques for


restorative materials on surface roughness and
bacterial adhesion

J Prosthet Dent. 2010 Apr;103(4):221-7


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J Prosthet Dent. 2010 Apr;103(4):221-7


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Finishing and Polishing of


Glass Ionomer Restorations

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Finishing and Polishing


of Direct Filling Gold

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Finishing And Polishing Of


Cast Gold Restorations

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Finishing And Polishing Of


Porcelain Restorations

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Steps

Applying HF acid

clear matrix strips are applied & wedged


before etching and cementation

The fit of the inlay is verified

enamel & dentin are etched


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Dual cure resin is applied


to the inlay

cement is applied to preparation

ceramic inlay is seated into the preparation


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Before curing, excess composite is removed with explorer

Cement is light cured


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Slender, fine grit,flame shaped


,diamond instruments used to
remove the flash

30 fluted finishing burs are used to


smooth the areas adjusted with
diamonds

smoothing the interproximal area with


abrasive finishing strip
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Rubber abrasive points & cups of


successively finer grits are used at
slow speed

final polish imparted by porcelain


polish paste applied with bristle
brush

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Finishing of Non-Precious alloys

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Recent new technology

Composition
Nano-fillers
Acetone
Butanol
Photoinitiator
Methacrylate resins
Additives

-High wear resistance


-High stain resistance
-Marginal sealing

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Summary

Finishing

the process that involves


removing marginal
irregularities, defining
anatomic contours, and
smoothing away surface
roughness of a restoration

Polishing

the process involving the


removal of minute
scratches from the surface
of a restoration and obtain
a smooth, light-reflective
luster.

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Oral health
Function
Aesthetics

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Classification of
abrasives
Natural
abrasives
Arkansas stone
Chalk, corundum
Diamond, tripoli,
zirconium silicate

Emery,garnet,
pumice, quartz,
sand, cuttle,
Kieselguhr

Manufactured
abrasives
Silicon carbide,
aluminum
oxide, synthetic
diamond

Rouge and tin


oxide

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Phases in dental
finishing procedure

Final
polishing

Intermediate
Finishing and
Polishing

Gross Reduction,
Coarse Finishing
and Margination
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Instruments for gross


reduction
Diamonds
Fluted
Finishing burs
Abrasive
Finishing Discs
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Intermediate finishing
and Polishing
Coated abrasive
disc

Bonded abrasive
devices
Fine diamonds and
multifluted
finishing burs
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Final polishing
Extra fine
Coated
Abrasive
Loose
abrasive
polishing
paste
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References -

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Thank You

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