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Stage 1

Clarifying the Research Question

Discover the management

Define the management

Define the research question
Refine the research question

The formulation of the problem is often more essential than its solution Albert Einstein

Stage 2
Research Proposal

Stage 3
Research Design Strategy Data Collection Design Sampling design

Instrument Development and Pilot Testing

Stage 4
Data collection and Preparation

Stage 5
Data Analysis and Interpretation

Stage 6
Research Reporting

Stage 7
Management Decision

Management Research Question Hierarchy

Management Decision Measurement Questions Investigative Questions Research Question(s) Management Question
What is the recommended course of action, given the research findings

What should be asked or observed to obtain the information the manager needs?
What does the manager need to know to choose the best alternative from the available courses of action?

What plausible courses of action are available to management to correct the problem or take advantage of the opportunity, and which should be considered?
How can management eliminate the negative symptoms? What symptoms cause management concern? What environmental stimuli raise management interest?

Management Dilemma

Research Proposal
Many view proposals as unnecessary But, the more inexperienced a researcher is, the more important it becomes to prepare a well planned & adequately documented proposal. It has primarily two documents:
Request for proposal (RPF) Research proposal

Research Proposal is companys offer to

produce a product or render a service to a potential buyer or sponsor

The internal research proposal is used

when the firm has both the time and the expertise to do the appropriate research internally

Research Proposal Process

Request For Proposal

Request for proposal (RPF) - A request for proposal (RFP) is an early stage in a procurement process, issuing an invitation for suppliers, often through a bidding process, to submit a proposal on a specific commodity or service

Request For Proposal(conti..)

It is a formal document issued by a corporate research department, a decision maker or some other sponsor to solicit services from research suppliers
It is used when the firm neither has the time nor the expertise to do the research itself

Proposal Development

Structuring the Research Proposal

Executive Summary

Problem Statement
Research Objectives Literature Review

Research Qualifications Budget Schedule Facilities Project Management Bibliography Appendices

Importance/ Benefits of

Study Research Design Data Analysis Nature/Form

Example: The Research Proposal for MindWriter

Research Proposal for MindWriter Complete Care Satisfaction Research

Data Gathering
Quantitative Techniques Qualitative Techniques

Secondary data Interviewing Questionnaires Checklists Surveys Observation Focus groups


Sampling is the process of selecting part of a larger group of participants with the intent of generalizing from the smaller group.

Data Analysis Procedures

Process of turning raw

data into information


procedures can range from simple frequency distributions to complex multivariate data analysis techniques.

Conclusions & Reports

Executive Summary

Problem Definition & Objectives Body of Methodology

Results, Findings, Limitations of Study