• • • • Tangible Usually made by hand Strokes after strokes Applying color to surfaces

• • • • • • • As addressed by traditional aesthetics Therapeutic use Language Manifestation of culture Commemorates historical events Symbol of Power and Prosperity Religion and Secular Patronage

Distinctive Elements of Painting
• Lines

• Colors

• Horizontal

Mountains by Homer Adirondack

The Iles d’Or by Henri-Edmond Cross

• Vertical

Grove of Trees by Felix Hidalgo

Tabok by Romeo Villalva Tabuena

• Diagonals

The Battle of Lepanto by Juan Luna

Spolarium by Juan Luna

• Curves and Spirals

Harlequins Carnival by Joan Miró

Madonna and Child by Hernando Ocampo


By Chan Hwee Chong

• Drooping Lines

The Jack Pine by Tom Thomson

The Jack Pine by Tom Thomson

• Technical Description • Physiological Effect

Psychology of Color
Warm colors make us happy, while cool colors make us sad. White is the emblem of light, purity, virginity and innocence. Black is associated with death, conceitedness and selfishness. Violet is the color of royalty, pomp, power and authority. Yellow is the color of life, light and cheerfulness. Blue denotes coolness and tranquility. Green gives a feeling of freshness, cheerfulness, restfulness, abundance and hope. Red signifies passionate love, heat, anger and war. Orange is the color of flame; hence, a symbol of knowledge.

Color Charts
Prang Color System
– 12 colors – 3 primaries – 3 binaries – 6 intermediates – Richer and more color result

Color Charts
Munsell Color System
– Professor Albert H. Munsell – Spectrum, 3D analysis – Five Primaries – Preferred by Colorists

• Color has three properties, which work together to make the colors we:

HUE – name of a color in the color spectrum. Red, yellow and blue are the primary hues in pigments. Hues may be: a) Warm b) Cool

The Pigment Color Wheel
o shows hue as a spectrum bent in circles
o it is a useful tool for organizing colors o shows the primary, secondary and intermediate hues

VALUE – the element of art that describes the darkness or lightness of color – also called notan or tones – gives solidity, distance and illusion of depth

White – highest value Black – lowest value

INTENSITY – expresses the taste, and refinement of the color worker. – also called chroma – brightness or dullness of a hue Tint – a light value of hue Shade – a dark value of hue

• There are two groups of color harmonies:
1) Harmonies of Related Colors
a) Monochromatic b) Analogous Harmony

2) Harmonies of Contrasting Colors
a) b) c) d) Complementary Harmony Double Complementary Harmony Split Complementary Harmony Triad

MONOCHROMATIC – includes only one hue plus the various values and intensities of that hue. Example: Monochromatic Color Wheel

Example of Monochromatic
• Pablo Picasso • (Spanish, 1881-1973) • Title: Femme Aux Bras Croises) Women with crossed arms • Date: 1902 • Medium: Oil in Canvas

ANALOGOUS HARMONY – uses hues that are side by side on the color wheel and share a hue. Any of the values and intensities of this hues could be used.

Example of Analogous Harmony

COMPLEMENTARY HARMONY – hues that are opposite each other in the color wheel.

Example of Complementary Harmony

DOUBLE COMPLEMENTARY HARMONY – also called tetradic. A scheme using four colors (Two sets of complementary colors)

Harmonies of Contrasting Colors
SPLIT COMPLEMENTARY – one color plus the two colors that are on either side of its complement on the color wheel.

TRIAD – three colors equidistant each other on the color wheel

Example of Triad

In art, the impression of three dimensional space, which is convincingly conveyed on a two dimensional surface such as a canvas, is what perspective is. Two types of Perspective
1) Linear perspective 2) Aerial perspective

LINEAR PERSPECTIVE – applies to the way in which objects appear to grow smaller as they recede in the distance.

AERIAL PERSPECTIVE – applies to the atmosphere’s effect on the appearance of objects in relation to their proximity.

Near salt lake Albert Bierstadt


Felix Hidalgo (1855-1913) Title: Grove of Trees

PROPORTION – comparative harmonious relationship between two or more elements in a composition with respect to size, color, quantity, degree, setting,
 Good proportion adds harmony and symmetry or balance among the parts of a design as a whole.

In the instance of a relationship of size a comparison is made between the:
– height, width and depth of one element to that of another – size of one area to the size of another area – size of one element to the size of another element – amount of space between two or more elements

There are several ways for achieving good proportion:

• Place together elements which are similar in character or have some feature in common.
• Create major and minor areas in the design, as equal parts can quickly become monotonous and boring. • Arrangement of space should be in such a way that the eye does not perceive a standard mathematical relationship. • Create harmony in the art work.

Examples of the effective use of Proportion

Examples of the effective use of Proportion

Fortunino Matania, R.I.

Emphasis and Subordination
• Principles of art by which the eye is first attracted to the most important thing in the painting. • Emphasis is the putting of stress, or in other words placing attention to a particular unit in the composition • Subordination, on the other hand, is the lessening of stress

Emphasis and Subordination
Emphasis through Isolation

In this example, the man outside the boat becomes a point of focus because he has been painted so far from the group.

Emphasis and Subordination
Emphasis through Contrast

Things that are different from the majority tend to stick out.

• An element of art that gives decorative, expressive and emotional effects • The feel, appearance, or consistency of a surface or a substance • Two types of tactile experience: actual and simulated • It is actual when involves actual physical touch • It is simulated when, for example, a surface is actually smooth but appears rough or broken. You use your eyes to determine the texture of an object.

• A strong, regular, repeated pattern of movement which helps the eyes travel from one unit to another with ease and pleasure • Can be achieved in two ways: formal and informal • Formal rhythm involves movements that occur in exact regularity • Informal rhythm is not mechanically determined and it involves repetitive continuity of movement

The image of the roots of an old tree below shows how the eye will follow the fluid movement of the patterns.

This linear pattern creates rhythm, observe how the eye will be pulled from left to right horizontally, that is the movement of the eyes back and forth across the image or the eye can jump from one of the horizontal lines to the next


REPETITION is a way of achieving rhythmic movement. It can be done by:
• Alternation-measured movement of the repeated motifs may have a beat 1-2, 1-2. • Sequence-motif is repeated from the center. • Parallelism-motif are distributed with exact regularity. • Progression-created through increase and decrease in size. • Continuous Line Movement-motifs are properly placed.

• Principle of art that produces an impression of unity. • When colors are harmonized the relationship that is established allows the colors to work together, sharing something in common. • It consists of 5 aspects namely: line and shape, size, texture, idea and color • Cezanne stated, "When paintings are done right, harmony appears by itself. The more numerous and varied they are, the more the effect is obtained and agreeable to the eye".

Example of Harmony

By: Leonid Afremov


Example of Harmony

By: Galia Philip

• A principle of art in which different elements are equal or in the correct proportions • There are two types of balance: formal and informal • Formal balance aka, bisymmetrical balance, is when objects on each side of the center are exactly duplicated • Informal balance aka, asymmetrical balance, is when objects do not attract the same amount of attention

Formal balance


Informal Balance

To balance these two colors, you would need a larger area of gray to balance the stronger value of black.




• upright support used for displaying and/or fixing something resting upon it. • old Germani synonym for donkey. • use the time of the ancient Egyptians. • 2 types: 1. Tri-pod designs 2. H-Frame Designs

• rigid, flat surface on which a painter arranges and mixes paints. • usually made of wood, plastic, ceramic, or other hard, inert, nonporous material, and can vary greatly in size and shape.

• • • • • LIMITED PALETTE- few colors WARM PALETTE- predominance of red hues COLD PALETTE- predominance of bluish hues HIGH IN KEY PALETTE- light bright colors LOW IN KEY PALETTE- predominantly dark colors • SET PALETTE- not only basic hues but also necessary range of values

• Used for mixing, scraping, and applying colors from the painting surface. • takes paint and makes it more 3-dimensional.

• used to apply ink or paint • The styles of brush tip seen most commonly are: • Round: pointed tip, long closely arranged bristles for detail • Flat: for spreading paint quickly and evenly over a surface. They will have longer hairs than their Bright counterpart. • Bright: shorter than flats. Flat brushes with short stiff bristles, good for driving paint into the weave of a canvas in thinner paint applications, as well as thicker painting styles like impasto work. • Filbert: flat brushes with domed ends. They allow good coverage and the ability to perform some detail work. • Fan: for blending broad areas of paint. • Angle: like the filbert, these are versatile and can be applied in both general painting application as well as some detail work.

• Mop: a larger format brush with a rounded edge for broad soft paint application as well as for getting thinner glazes over existing drying layers of paint without damaging lower layers. • Rigger: round brushes with longish hairs, traditionally used for painting the rigging in pictures of ships. They are useful for fine lines and are versatile for both oils and watercolors. • Stippler and deer-foot stippler: short, stubby rounds • Liner: elongated rounds • Dagger • Scripts: highly elongated rounds • Egbert


• the material and tools used to make a work of art.

• Process of painting with pigments that are bound with a medium of drying oil. • Theophilus- gave instructions for oil based painting in his treatise “On Various Arts” in 1125 • Jan Van Eyck- painted with oil on wooden panel in the 15th century

• • • • • Tones are easy to match, blend or grade Corrections are easy to make Dries relatively slowly May apply washed, blobs, trickles, spray, etc. Not possible to paint a less oily pigment over an oily one • Can be varnished • Linseed oil- from flax seed


Mona Lisa by Leonardo Da Vinci

Water Lilies by Claude Monet

Portrait of Dr. Gachet by Vincent Van Gogh

• Albrecht Dürer (1471–1528)- painted several fine botanical, wildlife and landscape watercolors generally considered among the earliest exponents of the medium. • medium or the resulting artwork in which the paints are made of pigments suspended in a water-soluble vehicle.

• Most common support is paper; other supports include papyrus, bark papers, plastics, vellum or leather, fabric, wood, and canvas. • Usually transparent, and appear luminous because the pigments are laid down in a relatively pure form with few fillers obscuring the pigment colors.


Jedburgh Abbey from the River by Thomas Gertin

Graveyard by Ignacio Barrios

• is a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly laidlime plaster. • derived from the Italian adjective fresco meaning "fresh“ • Most universal method • Two types of Fresco: Buon Fresco and Fresco Secco

• Buon Fresco- painting in pigment mixed with water on a thin layer of wet, fresh (hence the name) lime mortar or plaster. - must be done quickly - painter must know how much watercolor the plaster will absorb • Fresco Secco- done on dry plaster (secco is "dry" in Italian). The pigments thus require a binding medium, such as egg, glue or oil to attach the pigment to the wall.


School of Athens by Raphael (Buon Fresco)

The Creation by Michelangelo (Buon Fresco)


"Captain Gray Entering Tillamook Bay" - fresco secco by Lucia Wiley (1943)

• painting executed with pigment ground in a water-miscible medium. • originally came from the verb temper meaning to bring to a desired consistency. • Oldest method in painting known. • standard tempera vehicle is a natural emulsion, egg yolk, thinned with water. • man-made emulsions are those prepared with whole egg and linseed oil, with gum, and with wax.

• special ground for tempera painting is a rigid wood or wallboard panel coated with several thin layers of gesso, a white, smooth, fully absorbent preparation made of burnt gypsum (or chalk, plaster of Paris, or whiting) and hide (or parchment) glue. • Gesso Grasso and Gesso Sottile • Disadvantage: tedium of execution, difficulty in blending colors,hard security of deep tones, need for the painter to work fast, cannot be used in large-scale painting.


Still life by Alex Russel

• also known as hot wax painting, involves using heated beeswax to which colored pigments are added. • liquid/paste is then applied to a surface—usually prepared wood, though canvas and other materials are often used. • used in the Fayum mummy portraits from Egypt around 100-300 AD • Kut-kut, a lost art of the Philippines, implements sgraffito and encaustic techniques. It was practiced by the indigenous tribe of Samar island around 1600 to 1800.

• Technique fell into disuse in 18th and 19th century. • In 20th century, resin is added to the mixture to harden it and make it easier to apply. • Electrically heated palette is used.


Fayum Mummy Portrait of a Roman Woman

A 6th-century encaustic icon from Saint Catherine's Monastery, Mount Sinai.

• A mural is any piece of artwork painted or applied directly on a wall, ceiling or other large permanent surface. • From Latin word murus which means walls or ceilings. • Very ancient art form. • Murals of sorts date to Upper Paleolithic times such as the paintings in the Chauve Cave in Ardèche department and Lascaux of southern France (around 30,000 BC).


The 18th-century BC fresco of theInvestiture of Zimrilim discovered at theRoyal Palace of ancient Mari in Syria

Ceiling painting, by Jean-André Rixens. Salle des Illustres, Le Capitole, Toulouse, France.

• Artistic representation of a person. • Form of representational art focusing on particular individual subjects. • Dated from the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt. • Aims at exact visual likeness. • Can be done in any medium.


Vincent Van Gogh Self Portrait

Marilyn Monroe portrait by Andy Warhol

• stick of colored wax, charcoal, chalk, or other materials used for writing, coloring, drawing, and other methods of illustration. • Leonardo Da Vinci- first masters to use black and red crayon together. • Trois crayons technique - use of three basic colors together. - reached its peak in the 18th century work of the French artist Antoine Watteau


Ulla Taylor’s Festival Pavement Art

• manuscript in which the text is supplemented by the addition of decoration, such as decorated initials, borders (marginalia) and miniature illustrations. • earliest surviving substantive illuminated manuscripts are from the period AD 400 to 600, initially produced in Italy and the Eastern Roman Empire. • Began in dynastic Egypt with the illustration of the Dead. • Illuminations are also called miniatures, from Latin word minium meaning red lead.


The decoration of this page from a French Book of Hours, ca.1400, includes a miniature, initials and borders

A Thousand Glass Flowers

• the art of creating images with an assemblage of small pieces of colored glass, stone, or other materials. • Styles of mosaic:
– Opus tesselatum- simple geometric pattern – Opus vermiculatim- small stones arranged in patterns of curved lines, or depicting people, animals, plants or object. – Opus sectile- pattern composed of larger stones of varied shapes.


Irano-Roman floor mosaic detail from the palace of Shapur I at Bishapur.

cone mosaic courtyard from Uruk in Mesopotamia 3000 BC

• Colored glass that forms pictures or patterns. • Translucent colored glass used to compose designs in windows. • Use a technique similar to mosaic. • Known in Egypt and Mesopotamia in 3rd millenium BC. • Roman glassmakers had mastered the art of blowing glass, which allowed vessels and thin transparent sheets to be made.


Stained glass in Notre Dame, Paris, France

• • • • • • Realism Impressionism Fauvism Cubism Pointilism/Divisionism Symbolism • • • • • • Futurism Constructivism Neo-Plasticism Surrealism Abstract Expressionism Minimalism

• Type of art that shows things exactly as they appear in life • A 19th century art movement that sought to describe nature and people in real, as opposed to ideal, terms. • Artists:
– – – – Leonardo Da Vinci Thomas Eakins Gustave Courbet Winslow Homer


Leonardo Da Vinci

Year Type Dimensions

c. 1503–1519 Oil on poplar 77 cm × 53 cm (30 in × 21 in) Musée du Louvre, Paris


Max Schmitt in a Single Scull; Oil in Canvas; 1871
Everrything in this picture is made to be real, even the artis included himself in the painting, he is the one holding the oars.

• These pieces of art were painted as if someone just took a quick look at the subject of the painting. • The paintings were usually in bold colors and did not have a lot of detail. • Artists
– – – – Claude Monet Mary Cassatt Pierre Auguste Renoir Camille Pissaro

Artist: Pierre Auguste Renoir Title: Madame Henriot Year: 1876 Dimensions:65.9 x 49.8 cm Location: National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.

• An art movement in which artists used wild, intense color combinations in their paintings. • The subjects in the paintings were shown in a simple way, and the colors and patterns were bright and wild. • 4 years • Henri Matisse • “Wild Beasts” • ARTIST:
– Henri Matisse

Henri Matisse: Pianist and Checker Players; 1924; oil on canvas; 73.7x92.4 cm; National gallery of Art, Washington D.C.

• An art style in which objects and the space around them are broken up into different shapes and then put back together in new relationships. • Pablo Picasso • Modern Art • Geometric Shapes • Grays, Browns, Greens and Yellows • Abstract • Artists:
– Pablo Picasso – Marc Chagall – Georges Braque

Pablo Picasso: Mandolin and Guitar; 1924; Oil with Sand on Canvas; 140.6x200.4 cm; Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, New York.

• Use a techniques in which small, carefully placed dots of color are used to create forms • George Seurat • small dots • dots blend together • different colors • Artists:
– Paul Seurat – Paul Signac

Georges Seurat: Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte; 1884-86; Oil on Canvas; 207.6x308 cm; Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.

• French movement • Pictorial convention pose, gesture or a repertoire of attributes • Objects, words, colors or patterns • Sensual issues, religious feelings, occultism, love, death, disease and sin

Albert Aurier
1. Ideist 2. Symbolist 3. Synthetist 4. Subjective 5. Decorative


Title: Massilia, Greek Colony (1869) Artist: Pierre Puvis de Chavannes Medium: Oil on Canvas

Title: The Apparition (1876) Artist: Gustave Moreau Medium: Oil on Canvas

Title: Orpheus (1903) Artist: Odilon Redon Medium: Pastel

Title: The Scream (1893) Artist: Edvard Munch Medium: Oil on Board



• Italian movement • Early 20th century • Contemporary life: Machine & Motion • Movement & Speed

Filippo Tomasso Marinetti The Founding and First Manifesto of Futurism

• Umberto Boccioni • Technical Manifesto of Futuristic Painting

Title: The City Rises(1910) Artist: Umberto Boccioni Medium: Oil on Canvas

Title: Dynamic Hieroglyphic of the Bal Tabarin (1912) Artist: Gino Severini Medium: Esoteric Medium

Title: Rhythm of a Violinist (1912) Artist: Giacomo Balla Medium: Oil on Canvas


• • • • •

Russian art movement Early 20th century Vladimir Tatlin Metal, wire and pieces of plastic Abstraction, Functionalism, Utilitarianism

Title: Corner Relief (1915) Artist: Vladimir Tatlin Medium: Sculpture

Title: Monument to the Third International (1919) Artist: Vladimir Tatlin Medium: Architecture

Title: A Part of Moscow (1927) Artist: Aleksandr Mikhailovich Rodchenko Medium: Photography

• • • • • • •

Harmony & order Blue, red & yellow Straight lines in black, gray and white No curves, no diagonals, no circles Rectangular planes or prisms Asymmetrical Piet Mondrian & Theo van Doesburg

Title: University Hall (1923) Artist: Theo van Doesburg Medium: Collage and other media

Title: Composition with Black, Red, Grey, Yellow and Blue (1921) Artist: Piet Mondrian

Title: Red and Blue Chair (1918) Artist: Gerrit Rietveld Medium: Furniture


• Out of Dada • Subconscious • Hunger, sexuality, anger, fear, dread, ecstasy, etc • Automatism & Veristic Surrealism

Title: Anatomies(19 29) Artist: Man Ray Medium: Photography

Title: Soft Construction with Boiled Beans: Premonition on civil war (1936) Artist: Salvador Dali Medium: Oil on Canvas

Title: The Doll (1935) Artist: Hans Bellmer Medium: Watercolor and other media


• Subconscious, symbolism & myth • Action painting & Color-field painting

Title: Pasiphae(1943) Artist: Jackson Pollock

Title: Centre Triptych for the Rothko Chapel (1966) Artist: Mark Rothko

Title: Asheville (1948) Artist: William de Kooning

Title: Red, Brown and Black (1958) Artist: Mark Rothko Medium: Oil on Canvas

(1960s onwards)

• • • •

Simplicity Geometry Form, space, color and materials Sculpture

Title: Alpha-Pi (1960) Artist: Morris Louis Medium: Acrylic

Title: Untitled (1969) Artist: Donald Judd Medium: Sculpture

Title: Agbatana I (1968) Artist: Frank Stella Medium: Synthetic Polymer

Title: Equivalent VIII (1978) Artist: Carl Andre Medium: Objects

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