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Construction Rotating magnetic field Slip DTC Voltage vectors Benefits Conclusion

Three-phase induction motors are the most common

and frequently encountered machines in industry

simple design, rugged, low-price, easy maintenance wide range of power ratings: fractional horsepower to 10

MW run essentially as constant speed from no-load to full load Its speed depends on the frequency of the power source

not easy to have variable speed control requires a variable-frequency power-electronic drive for optimal speed control

An induction motor has

two main parts

A stationary stator consisting of a steel frame that supports a hollow, cylindrical core.

core, constructed from stacked laminations .

a revolving rotor

composed of punched laminations, stacked to create a series of rotor slots, providing space for the rotor winding . aluminum bus bars shorted together at the ends by two aluminum rings, forming a squirrel-cage shaped circuit (squirrel-cage)

Two basic design types depending on the rotor design

squirrel-cage: conducting bars laid into slots and shorted at both

ends by shorting rings. wound-rotor: complete set of three-phase windings exactly as the stator. Usually Y-connected, the ends of the three rotor wires are connected to 3 slip rings on the rotor shaft.

Squirrel cage rotor

Wound rotor

Notice the slip rings

Rotating Magnetic Field

Balanced three phase windings,

i.e. mechanically displaced 120 degrees form each other, fed by balanced three phase source A rotating magnetic field with constant magnitude is produced, rotating with a speed


120 f e P


Where fe is the supply frequency and P is the no. of poles and nsync is called the synchronous speed in rpm (revolutions per minute)

The Slip
Where s is the slip Notice that : if the rotor runs at synchronous speed s=0 if the rotor is stationary s=1 Slip may be expressed as a percentage by multiplying the above eq. by 100, notice that the slip is a ratio and doesnt have units

nsync nm nsync

Direct Torque Control

What is DTC? Direct Torque Control - or DTC as it is called - is the very latest AC drive technology and is set to replace traditional PWM drives of the open- and closed-loop type in many applications.

Why is it called Direct Torque Control?

The control of torque and speed are directly based on

the electromagnetic state of the motor, similar to a DC motor.

DTC is the first technology to control the real motor

control variables of torque and flux.

DTC scheme of Induction Motor


Following set of equations

Voltage vectors and six sectors

Optimum voltage vector switching table for six sector

Benefits of DTC
Fast torque response Torque control at low frequencies(Ex:cranes or elevator) Torque linearity Dynamic speed accuracy

This system is simple and it has good control

performance. DTC are in low torque ripple, low flux ripple and almost fixed switching frequency. The six sector DTC have good dynamic response & suitable for a kind of application-especially like traction, electric hybrid vehicles etc. The main drawbacks like Torque & current ripples are reduced by dividing the sector into twelve parts and utilizing all the voltage vectors.


Isao Takahashi, Toshihiko Noguchi, A new quick

response and high efficiency control strategy of an induction motor. M Depenbrock. Direct Self-control (DSC) of Inverter Fed Induction machine. IEEE Trans. H.F. Abdul Wahab and H. Sanusi Simulink Model of Direct Torque Control of Induction Machine. Peter Vas,Sensorless vector and Direct torque control,Oxford University Press. B.K. Bose, Modern Power Electronics and AC Drives. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Thank You.