# Wave Motion

In general, an oscillation or vibrating motion in which a point or body moves back and forth along a line about a fixed central point produces waves.

How does waves transfer energy?

•Waves are vibration that transmit energy away from an energy source •The energy source is often in the form of a vibration or oscillation.

Energy Transfer

Source Or Disturbance

Medium

The water in an ocean wave, for example, moves mainly up and down – as it passes, you bob up and down with it rather than being carried onto the shore.

An oscillating or vibrating system acts as the source of waves which transfer energy from one point to another without transferring mass

Propagation / Travelling of Waves
1. When a wave travels through a medium, the particles of the medium vibrate about their equilibrium positions. 2. The particles of the medium do not travel in the direction of the waves.
Wave motion

Medium : water moleculers

Propagation / Travelling of Waves Water waves

Disturbance

Medium

Energy Transfer

Wavefront
•A wavefront is a line or plane on which the vibrations of every points on it are in a phase and are at the same distance from the source of the waves AD,BE, CF the lines that join the point along the troughs of the waves. •Points in a wave are in a phase if they vibrate in the same direction with the same displacement.

wavefront

Direction of travel

Circular wavefront

A round dipper

The wavefronts of tranverse wave and longitudinal wave are perpendincular to the direction of propogation of the wave

A bar dipper

Plane wavefront

Two types of waves

Transverse waves

Longitudinal waves

Transverse waves

A transverse waves is a wave in which the vibration of particles in the medium is perpendicular (at right angle) to the direction of propagation of the wave. Example : water wave, light wave and radio wave.

This animation is taken from Absorb Physics for GCSE - © Crocodile Clips Ltd. For more information, visit: www.crocodile-clips.com

Longitudinal waves

A longitudinal waves is a waves in which the vibration of particles in the medium is parallel (along) to the direction of propagation of the wave

Transverse waves

Longitudinal waves

Transverse wave

Longitudinal wave

Longitudinal wave

Describing waves

Wavelength Amplitude Frequency Wave speed Period Displacement time graph

Describing waves

Wave speed velocity of waves, velocity = frequency x wavelength

v = f
The frequency of the vibrator of a ripple tanks is 8 Hz. The wave generated has a wavelength of 0.02m.The speed of the wave is…. f = 8 Hz,  = 0.02 m , V = ?

v = f
V = 8 x 0.02 = 0.16 ms
-1

Sort out the jumble!

The number of waves per second in m/s Wavelength The speed of the wave in Hz Frequency

Velocity Amplitude in metres

Amplitude
in metres

Wavelength Frequency The number of waves per second in Hz
Velocity The speed of the wave in m/s

The number of waves per second in m/s Wavelength The speed of the wave in Hz Frequency

Velocity Amplitude in metres

Group the correct names, descriptions and pictures together

Reflection

Refraction

Diffraction
Waves changing direction because of changing speed Waves spreading out after passing through a narrow gap Waves bouncing off a surface

Group the correct names, descriptions and pictures together

Diffraction

Waves spreading out after passing through a narrow gap

Reflection

Waves bouncing off a surface

Refraction

Waves changing direction because of changing speed

Factors that effect period of oscillation, T

Factor Pendulum increase Gravitational field strength, g increase Stiffness, k increase  

Period of oscillation, T Spring   Jigsaw blade  

Mass, m increase

Solving Problem Involving Waves

Damping and Resonance In an oscillating system such as oscillation of a spring, the oscillation does not continue with the same amplitude indefinitely except when the system is oscillating in the vacuum. The amplitude of oscillation will gradually decrease and become zero when the oscillation stops. The decrease in the amplitude of an oscillating system is called damping.

An oscillating system experiences damping when its energy is drained out as heat energy. a) External damping : loss of energy to overcome frictional forces or air resistance b) Internal damping : loss of energy due to the extension and compression of the molecules in the system.

To enable an oscillating system to go on continuously, an external force must be applied to the system. Such a motion is called a forced motion. The frequency of the system which oscillates freely without the action an external force is called natural frequency.

Resonance occurs when a system is made to oscillate at a frequency equivalent to its natural frequency by an external force. The resonating system oscillates at its maximum amplitude

When pendulum X oscillates, all the other pendulums are forced to oscillate. It is found that pendulum D oscillates with the largest amplitude, that is, pendulum D resonates.

The frequency of a simple pendulum depends on the length of the pendulum. Note that pendulum A and pendulum C are at the same length.( same frequency ).

Lecture 23, Resonance Motion

Consider the following set of pendulum all attached to the same string

A
D B

If I start bob D swinging which of the others will have the largest swing amplitude ? (A) (B) (C)

C

Dramatic example of resonance
• In 1940, turbulent winds set up a torsional vibration in the Tacoma Narrow Bridge

Dramatic example of resonance
• when it reached the natural frequency

Dramatic example of resonance
• it collapsed !

Some effects of resonance in daily life:

Trumpet

Soprano

The loudness of music produced by musical instruments such as flute and trumpet is the result of resonance in the air. A soprano sings with a high note, a thin piece of glass may break. A bridge can collapse when the amplitude of its vibration increases as a result of resonance