SPE3002/SPK5002 COMMERCE AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP Week 6

14 – 20 August 2006

AGENDA Entrepreneurship Education
Managing the Global Environment

Managing the Global Environment

LEARNING OUTLINE
Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this • What’s Your Global Perspective? chapter. – Contrast ethnocentric, polycentric, and geocentric attitudes toward global business.

– Explain why it’s important for managers to be sensitive to global differences.

LEARNING OUTLINE (cont’d)
• Understanding the Global Environment
Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter.

– Describe the current composition and currency situation of the European Union.

– Discuss the North American Free Trade Agreement and other regional trade alliances in Latin America.
– Define the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. – Explain the interdependence that globalization involves.

LEARNING OUTLINE (cont’d)
Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter. • Understanding the Global Environment (cont’d)
– Discuss the role of the World Trade Organization. – Contrast multinational corporations, transnational corporations, and borderless organizations.

– Describe the different ways that organizations can go global.
– Define exporting, importing, licensing, and franchising.

– Describe global strategic alliances, joint ventures, and foreign subsidiaries.

LEARNING OUTLINE (cont’d)
•Managing in a Global Environment
– Explain how the global legal-political environment affects managers. – Explain the nine GLOBE dimensions for assessing cultures. – Discuss the challenges of doing business globally in today’s world.
Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter.

What’s Your Global Perspective?
• Ethnocentric Attitude
– Belief that home country has the best work approaches and practices

• Polycentric Attitude
– View that managers in host country know the best approaches and practices

• Geocentric Attitude
– A world-oriented view that focuses on using the best approaches and people from around the globe

Global Attitudes

Regional Trading Alliances
• The European Union (EU)
– A unified economic and trade entity
• Belgium, Denmark, France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, the United Kingdom, Germany, Austria, Finland, and Sweden

• North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

– Economic and monetary union (Euro)

– Eliminated barriers to free trade (tariffs, import licensing requirements, and customs user fees)
• United States, Canada, and Mexico

Iceland

Nor way Iceland United Kingdom
North Sea

Finland Sweden Estonia Latv ia Lithuania
Russia

Russia

Ireland
North Atlantic Ocean
English Channel

Denmark

Netherlands Belgium Luxembourg
Bay of Biscay

Belarus Poland

Germany
Czech Rep. Slov akia

European Union Countries

Ukraine
Moldov a

France
Switzerland

Austria
Slovenia

Hungar y Romania Georgia
Serbia Bla ck Sea

Portugal

Andorra

Croatia BosniaHerzegovina

Spain

Italy
T yrrhenian Sea

Montenegro Albania
Ioni an Sea

Bulgaria

Armenia

Macedonia

Greece

Turkey
Aegean Sea

0 0 250

250

500 Miles

500 Kilometers

Malta

Cy prus

European Union Countries

• Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) • Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur) • Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
• African Union

Regional Trading Alliances (cont’d)

– Trading alliance of 10 Southeast Asian nations

Current members

My anmar

Laos

Thailand Vietnam Cambodia Philippines

Brunei Malay sia Singapore

Indonesia

ASEAN Members
Source: Based on J. McClenahen and T. Clark, “ASEAN at Work,” IW. May 19, 1997, p. 42.

The World Trade Organization (WTO)
• Evolved from the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1995 • Functions as the only global organization dealing with the rules of trade among nations • Has 147 member nations • Monitors and promotes world trade

Different Types of Global Organizations
• Multinational Corporation (MNC) – A firm that maintains operations in multiple countries but manages from the home country • Transnational Corporation (TNC) – A firm that maintains operations in several countries but decentralizes management to the local country • Borderless Organization – A firm that organizes along business lines without consideration to artificial geographic barriers

How Organizations Go Global

Exporting to or importing from foreign countries

Hiring foreign representation or contracting with foreign managers

Licensing/ Franchising

Strategic Alliances

Foreign Subsidiary

Low

Degree of Risk and Investment

High

How Organizations Go Global
• Exporting
– Making products at home and selling them overseas

• Importing
– Selling products at home that are made overseas

How Organizations Go Global
• Internal Sales or Manufacturing
– Selling or having products made in foreign factories with no physical presence

• Licensing and Franchising
– Giving another organization the right to use brand name, technology, or product specifications
• Licensing (manufacturing organizations) • Franchising (service organizations)

How Organizations Go Global
• Strategic Alliance – Partnership between an organization and a foreign company in which both share resources and knowledge in developing new products or building new production facilities • Joint Venture – A specific type of strategic alliance in which the partners agree to form a separate, independent organization for some business purpose

Managing in a Global Environment
• The Legal-Political Environment
– Stability or instability of legal and political systems
• Legal procedures are established and followed • Fair and honest elections held on a regular basis

– Differences in the laws of various nations
• Effects on business activities • Effects on delivery of products and services

Managing in a Global Environment (cont’d)
• The Economic Environment
– Economic Systems
• Market economy • Command economy
– An economy in which resources are primarily owned and controlled by the private sector – An economy in which all economic decisions are planned by a central government

– Monetary and Financial Factors
• Currency exchange rates • Inflation rates • Diverse tax policies

Managing in a Global Environment (cont’d)
• The Cultural Environment
– National Culture
• Values and attitudes shared by individuals from a specific country that shape their behavior and their beliefs about what is important • May have more influence on an organization than the organization culture

The GLOBE* Framework for Assessing Cultures
• Assertiveness • Future orientation • Gender differentiation • Uncertainty avoidance • Power distance • Individualism • In-group collectivism • Performance orientation • Humane orientation

*Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness

Globe Rankings

The Challenge of Global Management
• Increased threat of terrorism • Economic interdependence of trading • Dealing with increased uncertainty, fear, and anxiety • Acknowledging cultural, political, and economic differences • Avoiding parochialism