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• Motivation is derived from Latin word movere which means “to move” • “a process that starts with physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activates a behaviour or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive”. (Luthans:1998). • “The process that account for an individual‟s intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal”. (Robbins)
Concept of Motivation
• A need must be felt by an individual in such a way that it drives him/her to satisfy it. • The force underlying this behaviour may be called motivation. • This force may vary depending upon the intensity and importance of the need to the individual.
– Needs: a physiological or psychological imbalance leads to the creation of a need – Drives/motives: propel individual to attain their goals or satisfy their needs. Their performance is a product of both ability level and motivation. • Peoples behaviour is determined by what motivates them.Contd. – Incentives: that can fulfill a need and decrease the intensity of a drive is .
Basic Motivational Model (Mullins:1996) Needs or result in expectations Driving Force to achieve (behaviour or action) Desired Goals feedback Fulfillment which provide .
Types of Motivation Theories • Content Theories • Process Theories .
the wants and needs that people are trying to satisfy. . • Content theories place emphasis on what motivates human behaviour i.e. • These theories are concerned with identifying peoples needs and their relative strengths. and the goals they pursue in order to satisfy these needs.Content Theories • These theories attempt to explain those specific things which actually motivate the individual at work.
• They are concerned more with how behaviors are initiated. looking at how the . directed and sustained. • Process theories place emphasis on the actual process of motivation.Process Theories • These theories attempt to identify the relationship among the dynamic variables which make up motivation.
• The Dual-Factor Theory (Herzberg:1968). • The ERG Theory (Alderfer:1972). . • The Acquired Needs Theory/Achievement Motivation Theory(McClelland:1961).Content Models • The Hierarchy of Needs Theory (Maslow:1943).
Process Models • Theory X. Theory Y (McGregor:1960) • Expectancy Theory (Vroom:1964 and Porter & Lawler:1968) • Equity Theory (Adams:1965) .
and what they want depends on what they already have. • Hierarchy ranges through 5 levels and is displayed in the form of a pyramid implying a thinning out of needs as people progress up the hierarchy. they always want more. • Ascending order implies that it is the next unachieved level that acts as .Maslows Hierarchy of Needs • Basic proposition is that people are wanting beings.
Physiological Basic needs. Social and civilisational needs. Esteem Ego needs. Basic and instinctive needs.Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Self actualisation Realisation of full potential. Safety Protection and security needs. Love Social needs. .
Alderfer‟s ERG Theory • This is a modified need hierarchy model and it condenses Maslows five levels of need into only three levels based on the core needs of: – Existence – Relatedness – Growth .
Personal growth. interpersonal and friendship needs. self-respect. development.Alderfers ERG Theory Existence Relatedness Growth Physiological and material needs. Social. .
. • Relatedness needs are concerned with relationships to the social environment and cover love or belonging. affiliation and meaningful interpersonal relations of a safety or esteem nature.Alderfers ERG Theory • Existence needs are concerned with sustaining human existence and survival and cover physiological and safety needs of a material nature.
• The theory propounds that a) The lower order needs must be satisfied to move on to higher order needs (satisfaction progressions in process) The frustration of higher order needs the person can go back to lower order needs ( frustration regression process) All three needs can operate simultaneously.Alderfers ERG Model • Growth needs are concerned with the development of potential and cover self-esteem and selfactualization. b) c) .
• This process developed into job enrichment. .Herzberg‟s Dual-Factor Theory • Herzberg‟s original study consisted of interviews with 203 accountants and engineers. • The object of the research being to design jobs that provided job satisfaction. thereby encouraging higher levels of performance.
Herzberg‟s Dual Factor Theory Hygience or Maintenance Factors Salary Job Security Working Conditions Level and Quality of Supervision Company Policy and Administration Interpersonal Relations The Dissatisfiers MOTIVATION AND JOB SATISFACTION .
Herzberg‟s Dual Factor Theory cont. MOTIVATION AND JOB SATISFACTION The Satisfiers Sense of Achievement Recognition Responsibility Nature of the Work Personal Growth and Advancement Motivators or Growth Factors .
• They serve to prevent dissatisfaction. • They act as a „platform‟ upon with the satisfaction factors can be built. which if absent. • They are related to the job context and concerned with the job environment. cause dissatisfaction.Hygiene or Maintenance Factors (Herzberg) • These are the factors. .
if present. serve to motivate the individual to superior effort and performance. • These factors are related to the job content of the work itself.Motivators or Growth Factors (Herzberg) • These factors. • The strength of these factors will affect feelings of satisfaction or no satisfaction. but not dissatisfaction. .
.McClellands Achievement Motivation Theory • McClelland identified different motivational categories of people and if you could identify which category a person fell into it would help establish which patterns of motivation would lead to effective performance and success at work.
McClellands Achievement Motivation Theory • Three motives identified by McClelland: Need for Achievement Need for Power Need for Affiliation .
1. Need for Achievement • The need for achievement is the desire to consistently want challenging tasks demanding responsibility and application. • This need is linked to entrepreneurial spirit and the development of available resources. . • McClelland sees this need as the most critical for the organisations growth and success.
2. Need for Power • The need for power is directed to the manager working for an organisation that is concerned with group goals and the power is exercised on behalf of other people. . this is „socialised‟ power and should be distinguished from „personalised‟ power which is characterised by satisfaction from exercising dominance over other people.
• If an individual does not experience any sense of belonging within the organisation they will not be motivated to perform well. .3. . Need for Affiliation • This is the need for good social and personal relations with people. • It is related to Maslow‟ social needs the need to belong.
McGregor‟s Theory X. • He argues that the style of management adopted is a function of the managers attitudes towards people and assumptions about human nature and behaviour. Theory Y • McGregor put forward two suppositions about human nature and behaviour at work. .
• The central principle is direction and control through a centralised system of organisation and the exercise of authority.Theory X (McGregor) • Theory X represents the assumptions on which traditional organisations are based. and was widely accepted and practiced before the development of the human relations approach. .
• Motivation occurs only at the physiological and security levels. lacks ambition and values security most of all.Theory X Assumptions • The average person is lazy and has an inherent dislike of work. directed and threatened with punishment if the organisation is to achieve its objectives. • The average person avoids responsibility. prefers to be directed. controlled. . • Most people must be coerced.
Theory Y (McGregor) • Theory Y represents the assumptions consistent with current research knowledge. • The central principle is the integration of the individual and organisation goals. • It is recognised as the best way to elicit co-operation from workers. .
Theory Y Assumptions • For most people work is as natural as play or rest. • People will exercise self-direction and self-control in the service of objectives to which they are committed. • Commitment to objectives is a function of rewards associated with their achievement. .
• The capacity for creativity in solving organisational problems is distributed. • The intellectual potential of the average person is only partially utilised. • Motivation occurs at all of Maslow‟s .Theory Y Assumptions cont. • Given the right conditions the average worker can learn to accept and to seek responsibility.
. • It is a measure of the strength of a particular outcome has for the individual.Expectancy Theory • Vroom‟s expectancy theory(1964) maintains that employees behave in ways they expect will produce positive outcomes. • The model suggest that the persons level of effort or force (motivation) is not simply a function of rewards.
the possibility of achieving a certain outcome through certain actions.the motivation or the force used to achieve it.the preference an individual has for a particular outcome. • F = Force .Expectancy Theory • Vroom‟s expectancy theory is: – F = Sum (E * V) where. • V = Valency . . the worth placed on a particular result. • E = Expectancy .
autonomy and self-actualization. . social esteem. – The value of the reward to individuals in so far as they satisfy their need for security.Expectancy Theory • Porter and Lawler (1968) develop Vroom‟s expectancy theory by suggesting that there are two factors determining the effort people put into their jobs.
the greater the effort that will be made in a given situation. as perceived by individuals . • Thus the greater the value of a set of rewards and the higher the probability that receiving each of these rewards depends upon effort.in other words their expectations of the relationship between effort and reward. .Expectancy Theory – The probability that reward depends on effort.
.Adams Equity Theory • Equity theory focuses on peoples feelings of how fairly they feel they have been treated in comparison with the treatment received by others. • It is based on exchange theory. • People expect certain outcomes in exchange for certain inputs or contributions.
all the financial and nonfinancial rewards.what the individual brings to their employment in terms of effort.e. – Outcomes .the range of factors the employee receives in return for their inputs i.Adams Equity Theory • Adams states that people will be better motivated if they are treated equitably. • The exchange variables are: – Inputs . . experience and skills.
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