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 History of Ergonomics  Objectives of Ergonomics  Workplace Design Principles  Ergonomic Risk : Musculo-Skeletal-Disorders (MSD)  Workplace Environment

Definition of Ergonomics
from the Greek words :

“Ergos” means work “nomos” means principles of laws

Definition of Ergonomics

Ergonomics is the science of designing a job, equipment and workplace to fit workers.

Ergonomics can be simplified as being the study of man in relation to his environment.
Proper ergonomic design is necessary to prevent repetitive strain injuries, which can develop over time and can lead to longterm disability.

History Of Ergonomics

Hellenic civilization in 5th century BC used ergonomic principles in the design of their tools, jobs and workplaces. In early years, Egyptians Dynasties made tools, household equipment that illustrated ergonomic principles. In 19th century, "Scientific Management" method proposed path to find the optimum method for carrying out given task was introduced. Taylor, found that the amount of coal shoveled could be tripled by incrementally reducing the size and weight of coal shovels until the fastest shoveling rate was reached.

History Of Ergonomics

Lillian Gilbreth expanded Taylor's methods in the early 1900s to develop "Time and Motion Studies".

They aimed to improve efficiency by eliminating unnecessary steps and actions. By applying this approach, the Gilbreths reduced the number of motions in bricklaying from 18 to 4.5, allowing bricklayers to increase their productivity from 120 to 350 bricks per hour.

Objectives of Ergonomics
 

To facilitate the maximization both comfort and productivity in the workplace. Secure health, safety and comfort of persons doing the work. To successfully develop environments that comfort to the workers/ people. To achieve better effectiveness. work efficiency and

Workstation Design Principle
 Adjust the height of work according to body dimensions, using elbow height as guidance.  Organize work so that usual operations can be done within easy reach  Adjust workplace to gain enough space to change work position.  Use a foot rail or portable footrest to shift body weight from both to one or the other leg.

 Use a seat whenever possible while working or at least when the work process allows for rest.


Sitting Work Position

Adopt a good sitting position by learning how to adjust the workstation to fit individual needs for specific tasks Select a chair with : - controls that are easy to operate from sitting position - a seat that adjusts for both height and tilt - a seat that does not put pressure the back of thighs or knees - a backrest that is shaped to support the lower back and does not give way - a front edge curved downwards - non-slip, breathable fabric on the seat - a stable five-point base - a minimum seat width of 400mm - arm rest where practical, that do not interfere with free movements within the workstation

Sitting Work Position

Adjust the chair’s height to 250 -350mm below the work surface.
Introduce five minutes of exercise, such as walking for every 40 to 50 minutes of sitting. ‘Activity breaks’ such as work-related tasks away from the desk or simple exercises which employee can carry out on the worksite.

Sitting Work Position

Good Sitting Work Position

Sitting Work Position

Prolonged sitting :



reduce body movement, making muscles more likely to pull, cramp or strain when stretched suddenly Causes fatigue in the back and neck muscles by slowing the blood supply and puts high tension on the spine, especially in the low back or neck. causes a steady compression on the spinal discs


Standing Work Position

Can be categorized based on leg movements such as : Dynamic activity : with leg movements Static activity: with less or no leg movements or combination of both Is define as a workstation where a task is performed with the employee standing in a relatively stationary position and without

Standing Work Position

Different tasks require different work surface heights:  Precision work, such as writing or electronic assembly - 5 cm above elbow height; elbow support is needed.  Light work, such as assembly-line or mechanical jobs - about 5-10 cm below elbow height.  Heavy work, demanding downward forces - from 20-40 cm below elbow height

What can workers do to reduce the discomfo of working in a standing position?
 Adjust the height of the work according to body dimensions, using elbow height as a guide.  Organize your work so that the usual operations are done within easy reach

What can workers do to reduce the discomfo of working in a standing position?
 Always face the object of work.  Keep body close to the work.  Adjust the workplace to get enough space to change working position.  Use a foot rail or portable footrest to shift body weight from both to one or the other leg.  Use a seat whenever possible while working, or at

What should workers avoid while working in a standing position?
 Avoid reaching behind the shoulder line.
 Shifting feet to face the object is the recommended way.  Avoid overreaching beyond the point of comfort.  Avoid reaching above shoulder line

The basic of neutral working postures


Ergonomics Risk

Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs)
 Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are injuries of the muscles, nerves, tendons, ligaments, joints, cartilage or spinal discs.  MSDs are not typically the result of any instantaneous or acute event (such as a slip, trip, or fall) but reflect a more gradual or chronic development.

Ergonomics - Risk Factors for M
 Forceful Exertions  Repetitive Motions - lead to overuse of muscles and tendons  Awkward Postures - body positions that are uncomfortable  Static Postures - positions held for long periods of time can
cause fatigue

 Contact Stress - occurs when there is pressure exerted on a

 Lighting  Vibration - reduces the ability of the muscles to contract and
leads to more rapid fatigue

 Noise

Warning Signs of MSD
Repetitive stress injuries often affect the hands, wrists, arms, elbows, shoulders, back and neck. If you suspect that you have a problem contact your physician. Some of the warning signs are listed below:

 Presence of tingling, numbness or loss of sensation  Inability to make a fist  Weakness  Cold hands  Lack of control or coordination  Having to frequently self massage  Pain or soreness  Swelling, inflammation or stiffness in joints

Repetitive Strain Injuries (RSI)

Repetitive Motion Disorders

Effects of MSD
Cumulative Trauma Disorders

Loss in Productivity


Workplace Environment


Indoor Air Quality – Effects on Respiratory Sys
Poor air quality can effects human health : respiratory system and cardiovascular system Individual reactions to air pollution depends on : - the type of pollutant a person’s exposed - degree of exposed - health status - genetics

Health effects caused by air pollutions : - difficulty in breathing - wheezing - coughing


Measure Lighting and Sightedness
Lightning. When planning the layout of Visual Display Unit workstations the following points should be considered with regard to lighting. Avoid: - Gloom and harsh light equally. - Glare from unshielded light sources, artificial and natural, and reflections in the operator's field of view. -Screen reflections.

Measure Lighting and Sightedness
Ensure: · Levels of 300-500 lux on the working plane. · Use of diffusers with a narrow angle of light distribution on overhead light sources or provide diffuse lighting from indirect sources, complemented where necessary with task lighting. · Low reflectance work surfaces and equipment with matt finished surrounds.

Measure Lighting and Sightedne
· Levels of 300-500 lux on the working plane. · Where possible locate screens between and parallel to overhead light units and at right angles to windows. Screens should never face or back on to windows unless adequate control of daylight glare is available. · Where indirect lighting or low luminance light sources are used, ensure that the surface reflectivity of walls, ceilings and floor are higher than that used for other forms of lighting. Screen Filters

Measure Lighting and Sightedne
a. The work desk or work surface shall have a sufficiently large, low-reflectance surface and allow a flexible arrangement of the screen, keyboard, documents and related equipment b. The document holder shall be stable and adjustable and shall be positioned so as to minimize the need for uncomfortable head and eye movements. c. There shall be adequate space for operators or users to find a comfortable position. d. The workstation shall be dimensioned and designed so as to provide sufficient space for the operator or user to change position and vary movements. e. The symbols on the keys shall be adequately contrasted and legible from the design working position


Measure Temperature and Humid
- Temperature and relative humidity are two of several parameters that affect thermal comfort. - Satisfaction with the thermal environment can also be influenced by such factors as radiant temperature, air velocity, occupant activity level, and clothing.

Measure Temperature and Humid
- Relative humidity levels below 25% are associated with increased discomfort and drying of the mucous membranes and skin, which can lead to chapping and irritation. - Low relative humidity also increases static electricity, which causes discomfort and can hinder the operation of computers and paper-processing equipment.

Measure Temperature and Humid
- High humidity levels can result in condensation within the building structure and on interior or exterior surfaces and the subsequent development of moulds and fungi
* In large buildings, the air supply is humidified over the winter season, usually by a water spray or steam system. Water spray humidifiers require regular scheduled maintenance to control water quality. Steam humidifiers are cleaner and easier to maintain, but use more electrical power. In the summer, the air conditioning dehumidifies the outdoor air supply


Measure Noise and Hearing Qual
The term hearing describes the process, function, or power of perceiving sound. Types of Noise : Steady: Continuous noise of sudden or gradual onset and long duration (more than one second). Examples: aircraft powerplant noise, propeller noise, and pressurization system noise. According to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the maximum permissible continuous exposure level to steady noise in a working environment is 90 dB for eight hours. ·Impulse/Blast: Noise pulses of sudden onset and brief duration (less than one second) that usually exceed an intensity of 140 dB. Examples: firing a handgun, detonating a firecracker, backfiring of a piston engine, high-volume squelching of radio equipment, and a sonic boom caused by breaking the sound barrier. The eardrum may be ruptured by intense levels(140 dB) of impulse/blast noise

Measure Noise and Hearing Qual
Effects of Noise Exposure Physiological - Ear discomfort may occur during exposure to a 120 dB noise. - Ear pain may occur during exposure to a 130 dB noise. - Eardrum rupture may occur during exposure to a 140 dB noise. - Temporary hearing impairment. Unprotected exposure to loud, steady noise over 90 dB for a short time, even several hours, may cause hearing impairment. This effect is usually temporary and hearing returns to normal within several hours following cessation of the noise exposure. - Permanent hearing impairment. Unprotected exposure to loud noise (higher than 90 dB) for eight or more hours per day for several years, may cause a permanent hearing loss.

Measure Noise and Hearing Qual
Effects of Noise Exposure

Psychological - Subjective Effects: Annoying high-intensity noise can cause distraction, fatigue, irritability, startle responses, sudden awakening and poor sleep quality, loss of appetite, headache, vertigo, nausea, and impair concentration and memory.
- Speech Interference: Loud noise can interfere with or mask normal speech, making it difficult to understand. - Performance: Noise is a distraction and can increase the number of errors in any given task. Tasks that require vigilance, concentration, calculations, and making judgments about time can be adversely affected by exposure to loud noise higher than 100 dB.

Measure Noise and Hearing Qual
How to Protect Your Hearing Earplugs : Insertable-type earplugs, must be inserted properly to create an air-tight seal in the ear canal. Communication Headsets : more easily donned and removed than earplugs Active Noise Reduction Headsets. :This type of headset uses active noise reduction technology that allows the manipulation of sound and signal waves to reduce noise, improve signal-to-noise ratios, and enhance sound quality. Combinations of Protection Devices : The combination of earplugs with earmuffs or communication headsets is recommended when ambient noise levels are above 115 dB. Earplugs, combined with active noise reduction headsets, provide the maximum level of individual hearing protection that can be achieved with current technology