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APPLIED METALLURGY EBB 440

Summary of Course
Introduction to the various processing techniques to produce metals / metal alloys components or products and also the factors affecting production. The course covers the techniques, parameters involved, common defects associated with each process and methods to eliminate them, and the design aspects. The processes include casting, powder metallurgy, metal deformation, sheet metal working, wire drawing, joining technology, machining and surface technology / treatment.

Assessment
60% Exam, 40% Course Work 2 test + assignment Assignment : Group assignment/presentation Quiz Individual assignment Class activities Industrial visit report

References
Manufacturing Engineering & Technology 4th ed, by Kalpakjian, S. & Schmid, S. R. Materials & Processes in Manufacturing, 9th ed, by Degarmo, E. P., Black, J. T. & Kohser, R. A. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing, 2nd ed. By Mikell P. Groover.

Course Objective (CO)


Able to determine the various processes in manufacturing of metals and alloys. Able to evaluate influence of processing parameters on materials structure, behaviour / properties and performance. Able to justify choice of process(s) based on design, cost, product requirement / specification, and other related factors.

Manufacturing
Technology the application of science to provide society with need that needed or required. Manufacturing process of converting raw materials into products. Includes (1) design, (2) selection and (3) sequence of processes product go through. Development of new materials new process technology.

Inter-relationship between materials manufacturing processes properties.

Manufacturing
Product design Production control

Machinery and tooling


Process planning Materials Purchasing Manufacturing

Support services
Marketing Sales Shipping Customer services

Activities respond to :
Meet design requirements and product specs and std. Environmentally friendly and economical methods. Quality built in every stage & level appropriate to use. Methods must be flexible - respond to changes in market demands, types of products, production rates, production quantities, and on-time delivery requirements. Development in materials, production methods and computer integration - technological & managerial. Viewed as large system - can be modeled. Constantly strive for higher levels of quality and productivity (optimum use of all its resources).

Design Process

Selection of materials :
Require knowledge of function and service requirement. Metals - Ferrous and nonferrous, superalloys. Polymer - thermoplastics & thermoset, elastomers. Ceramics (traditional & advanced), glass ceramics, glasses, graphite, diamond, diamond-like materials. Composite materials - PMC, MMC, CMC. Nanomaterials, shape-memory alloys, amorphous alloys, superconductors, and others. Properties : mechanical , physical, chemical (normal & hostile environment), and manufacturing. Cost and availability : raw & processed, and manufactured components. Appearance, service life and recycling issue.

Selection of Manufacturing Process


Casting : foundry or net-shape molding processes Solid state : powder metallurgy Forming or metalworking processes - hot and cold ; rolling, extrusion, forging, wire drawing, sheet metal. Machining (material removal) processes - shaping, drilling, turning, milling, sawing, broaching & abrasive machining. Also micro-machining electrochemical, thermal, etc. Joining and assembly - mechanical fastening, soldering & brazing, welding, press/shrink/snap fittings, adhesive bonding & assembly process. Surface treatment finishing & property enhancement. Rapid prototyping Heat treatment enhancement of properties.

Casting operation fluidity of liquid as it flows & takes the shape of mold

Powder metallurgy manufacture from powder, net-shape production.

(a) Forging & (b) Extrusion : Deformation exploits ductility, plastically deform to desired shape. Only for metals with enough ductility.

Selection of Manufacturing Process


Properties of materials - manufacturing methods - design. How do you decide which process to use? Consequence of improper selection of materials & processes => malfunction, underperform, unreliable or unsafe for use / product failure.

Materials Processing
Cast : can produce complex shapes but prone to defects such as shrinkage and porosity. Powder Metallurgy : high precision, little waste, minimum finishing and minimize casting defects but limited by cost and small parts. Forming : high rates of production but usually require powerful equipment and reliable tool or dies. Machining : capable of outstanding dimensional precision but with lots of scrap. Joining : great to join components to make complex products but joint areas often affected by the joining process and prone to defects. Heat treatment / surface technology : finishing or enhancement of properties & aesthetic value.