By : NASRIN SETONI

Becoming in 1799 sheriff (local  judge)of selkirkshire. In 1806 clerk of session-i.e, secretary to the highest civil court in Scotlandin Edinburg. Scott was an avid reader of ballads  and poetic romances. Translator of German ballad-  imitations. Writer of such imitations himself.  collector and editor of Border Ballads (Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border)

Long narrative poem: The best known are Marmion and The lady of the lake. In 1811 Scott started building his great country house. This house become a symbol of Scott’s viwe of history , which was concerned with the continuity between the past and the present. Some of his lyric, like ‘dock of Hazeldean’ and ‘proud Maisie’ ,are based on the folk ballad. His first novel was ‘Waverley’ ,published anonymously.

Scott was the founder of the historical novel, distinct  from the earlier (gothic) novel that dealt with the past merely. Historical novel: Old Morality , Rob Roy , the heart of  Midlothian. His tragedy: The Bride of Lammermoor , The two  Drovers

Lyrical ballads ,which included the Rime of the Ancient Mariner in 1798. Together the two young men  planned to establish an ideal democratic community in America for which Coleridge coined the name ‘Pantisocracy’ ,signifying an equal rule by all. Perpetuation of the scheme  required offspring , Coleridge dutifully became engaged to Sara Fricker.

The Pantisocracy scheme collapsed.  Wordsworth is the best poet of the age, Coleridge  said. Lyrical ballads published by Coleridge and  Wordsworth. Coleridge had suffered from painful physical  ailment. Dejection: an ode, was Coleridge’s despairing  farewell to heath, happiness and poetic creativity. In 1808 he gave his first course of public lectures in  London. Single- handedly undertook to write, publish, and  distribute a periodical , the friend. A tragedy ,Romense, had a very successful run of  twenty performance at the Drury lane theatre

He published Biographia literaria , Zapolya (a drama).  He often adapted (or simply adopted) passage from other  writers. Within the decade after Coleridge died, John Stuart Mill,  announced that Coleridge was one of ‘ the two great seminal minds of England. By present consensus, Coleridge is also one of the greatest and most influential of literary theorists. Coleridge’s writings in verse , are the work of a major and  innovative poet. His poem of mystery and demonism  1.the Rime of Ancient Mariner  2.christable  3.Kubla Khan  Coleridge thought Wordsworth was the greatest poet since  Milton. Biographia literaria consist of two main part  1.my literary life and opinions  2.a critique of Wordsworth ‘s theory of poetic diction. 

A near contemporary of Wordsworth  and Coleridge. Supported the lyrical Ballads and  some of the other avant-garde poetry of his time. Sharing Samuel Johnson’s opinion that  he who tires of London tires of life. Prefering those element in Coleridge  and Wordsworth ‘s poems that were human and realistic. Many of his best familiar essays, like  Wordsworth ‘s poems, are made up of his early experience and feeling .

Personal essay was an established genre that had  been developed by Montaigne as early as sixteenth century. At the age of seven he entered Christ’s hospital, the  ‘Blue school’ of his essay ‘Christ’s Hospital Five-andThirty years ago. When in 1818, at the age of forty-three, he published  his works, he apparently thought his major writing had already been accomplished. 1: he had produced a good deal of minor verse.  2: a sentimental novel, Rose-mund Gray  3: a blank- verse tragedy in the Elizabethan manner,  John Woodvil. 4:a fare, Mr.H ,which was hissed by many when it  was produced at Drury lane

5: in collaboration with his sister Mary, the excellent  children’s book, Tales from Shakespeare. 6:two fine critical essays, The ‘’Tragedies of  Shakespeare’’ and ‘’on the Ceniue and character of Hogarth’’ Being to contribute to the London Magazine the  Essays of Elia ,which have elevated him to the rank of a major prose writer. Lamb’s earlier attempts in the fictional forms show  that he lacked the power of inventing characters and events. Lamb’s style was not in any contemporary tradition.  he wrote for antiquity. His prose style. Like that of Edmund Spenser’s in  verse, is an invented style.

His first literary production, at the  age of thirteen, was a letter to a newspaper. His last book was a four-volume life  of Napoleon. His first job as a journalist was a  parliamentary reporter for the morning chronicle. 1813-14 begins writing dramatic  criticism and general essays. Hazlitt developed a fast-moving, hard hitting prose in a style that he called ‘’plain, point-blank speaking. My first Acquaintance with poets  have a narrative subject matter. Highly popular lecturer on  Shakespeare, Elizabethan drama , and English poetry.

Begins literary career with confessions of an English opium-Eater. He entered Worcester college, Oxford, and devoting himself to English literature and German language. De Quincy had been an early and  fervent admire of Wordsworth and Coleridge. The confessions of an English opiumeater, which he contributed in two installment to the London Magazing, was at once reprinted as a book.

As literary critic De Quincy was capable of a fine  essay in critical impressionism , on the knocking at the Gate in ‘’Macbeth’’. Wrote a number of vivid biographical sketches of  writers he know personally. ‘’On murder considered as one of the fine Art’’ start  with face and move into macabre fantasy. He opened up to English literature the night side of  human consciousness, De Quincy was in his writings a radical innovator.  Confessions of an English opium-eater is divided into  three parts: 1:the first part: parliaminary confessions  2:part two: the pleasure of opium  3: part three: the pains of opium 

1.in all the following work Coleridge opened up the realm of mystery and magic EXCEPT: A. biographia literaria B. The Ancient Mariner C. Kubla Khan D. Christable 

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2.which one of the following men of letters is not  included among the greatest essayist of the Romantic age? A. Lock B. Hazlitt  C. Lamb D. De Quincey  3.lyrical Ballads, a co-product of Wordsworth and Coleridge, opens with….. A. we are seven B. Ancient mariner C. To my sister D. kubla Khan 
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