A heat exchanger is a device built for efficient heat

transfer from one medium to another. They are
widely used in
Refrigeration
space heating
air conditioning
 power plants
 chemical plants
 petrochemical plants
 petroleum refineries
 natural gas processing
One common example of a heat
exchanger
is the radiator in a car, in which the heat
source, being a hot engine-cooling fluid, water,
transfers heat to air flowing through the
radiator (i.e. the heat transfer medium).
How is the heat transfer?

• Heat can transfer between the surface of a
solid conductor and the surrounding medium
whenever temperature gradient exists.
 Conduction
 Convection
 Natural convection
 Forced Convection
Criteria for the selection of
heat exchanger
– Suitable on the grounds of operating pressure and
temperature, fluid-material compatibility, handling,
extreme thermal conditions

– Estimating the cost of those which may be suitable
engineering-resource.com
Natural and forced Convection
Natural convection occurs whenever heat flows
between a solid and fluid, or between fluid
layers.
As a result of heat exchange
Change in density of effective fluid layers taken
place, which causes upward flow of heated
fluid.
If this motion is associated with heat transfer
mechanism only, then it is called Natural
Convection
Forced Convection

If this motion is associated by mechanical
means such as pumps, gravity or fans, the
movement of the fluid is enforced.
And in this case, we then speak of Forced
convection.
Heat Exchangers

• A device whose primary purpose is the transfer of
energy between two fluids is named a Heat Exchanger.




Applications of Heat Exchangers
Heat Exchangers
prevent car engine
overheating and
increase efficiency
Heat exchangers are
used in Industry for
heat transfer
Heat
exchangers are
used in AC and
furnaces
• The closed-type exchanger is the most popular
one.
• One example of this type is the Double pipe
exchanger.






• In this type, the hot and cold fluid streams do
not come into direct contact with each other.
They are separated by a tube wall or flat plate.
Principle of Heat Exchanger
• First Law of Thermodynamic: “Energy is conserved.”
generated s
in out
out in
e w q h m h m
dt
dE
     + + + |
.
|

\
|
÷ =
¿ ¿
ˆ
.
ˆ
.
¿ ¿
÷ =
out in
h m h m
ˆ
.
ˆ
.  
h
h
p h h
T C m A Q A = . . .

c
c
p c c
T C m A Q A = . . . 
0
0 0 0
•Control Volume
Cross Section Area
HOT
COLD
Thermal Boundary Layer
Q hot Q cold
T
h
T
i,wall

T
o,wall

T
c

Region I : Hot Liquid-
Solid Convection
NEWTON’S LAW OF
CCOLING

dq
x
= h
h
. T
h
÷T
iw
( )
.dA
Region II : Conduction
Across Copper Wall
FOURIER’S LAW

dq
x
= ÷k.
dT
dr
Region III: Solid –
Cold Liquid
Convection
NEWTON’S LAW OF
CCOLING

dq
x
= h
c
. T
ow
÷T
c
( )
.dA
THERMAL
BOUNDARY LAYER
Energy moves from hot fluid to
a surface by convection,
through the wall by conduction,
and then by convection from
the surface to the cold fluid.
• Velocity distribution and boundary layer
When fluid flow through a circular tube of
uniform cross-suction and fully developed,
The velocity distribution depend on the type
of the flow.
In laminar flow the volumetric flow rate is a
function of the radius.
V = u2trdr
r =0
r = D/ 2
}
V = volumetric flowrate
u = average mean velocity
 In turbulent flow, there is no such distribution.
• The molecule of the flowing fluid which adjacent
to the surface have zero velocity because of mass-
attractive forces. Other fluid particles in the
vicinity of this layer, when attempting to slid over
it, are slow down by viscous forces.

r
Boundary layer
• Accordingly the temperature gradient is
larger at the wall and through the viscous
sub-layer, and small in the turbulent core.





heating
cooling
Tube wall
T
wh
T
wc
T
c
Metal
wall
o
Warm fluid
cold fluid
) ( T T hA q
T hA q
w x
x
÷ =
A =

q
x
=
k
o
A(T
w
÷T)
h
• The reason for this is
1) Heat must transfer through the boundary
layer by conduction.
2) Most of the fluid have a low thermal
conductivity (k)
3) While in the turbulent core there are a
rapid moving eddies, which they are
equalizing the temperature.

Region I : Hot Liquid –
Solid Convection

q
x
=
k
copper
.2tL
ln
r
o
r
i

T
h
÷T
iw
=
q
x
h
h
.A
i

q
x
= h
hot
. T
h
÷T
iw
( )
.A
Region II : Conduction
Across Copper Wall

T
o,wall
÷T
i,wall
=
q
x
.ln
r
o
r
i
|
\

|
.
|
k
copper
.2tL
Region III : Solid – Cold
Liquid Convection

T
o,wall
÷T
c
=
q
x
h
c
.A
o

q
x
= h
c
T
o,wall
÷T
c
( )
A
o
+

T
h
÷T
c
= q
x
1
h
h
.A
i
+
ln
r
o
r
i
|
\

|
.
|
k
copper
.2tL
+
1
h
c
.A
o

¸




(
¸
(
(
(
(

q
x
=U.A. T
h
÷T
c
( )
1
1
.
ln .
.
÷
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
cold i copper
i
o
o
i hot
o
h r k
r
r
r
r h
r
U
U = The Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient [W/m.K]

T
h
÷T
c
=
q
x
R
1
+ R
2
+ R
3

U =
1
A.ER

r
o
r
i
Calculating U using Log Mean Temperature
cold hot
dq dq dq = ÷ =
c h
T T T ÷ = A
c h
dT dT T d ÷ = A ) (
h
h
p h h
dT C m dq . .

=
c
c
p c c
dT C m dq . .

=
Hot Stream :
Cold Stream:
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ = A
c
p c
c
h
p h
h
C m
dq
C m
dq
T d
. .
) (
dA T U dq . .A ÷ = ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ A ÷ = A
c
p c
h
p h
C m C m
dA T U T d
.
1
.
1
. . . ) (
} }
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ =
A
A
A
A
2
1
2
1
.
.
1
.
1
.
) (
A
A
c
p c
h
p h
T
T
dA
C m C m
U
T
T d
( ) ( ) ( ) | |
out
c
in
c
out
h
in
h c h
T T T T
q
A U
T T
q
A U
T
T
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = A + A ÷ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
A
A . . .
ln
1
2
} } |
|
.
|

\
|
A
+
A
÷ =
A
A
A
A
2
1
2
1
. .
) (
A
A
c
c
h
h
T
T
dA
q
T
q
T
U
T
T d
|
|
.
|

\
|
A
A
A ÷ A
=
1
2
1 2
ln
.
T
T
T T
A U q
Log Mean Temperature
T
1

A
1 2
T
2

T
3

T
6

T
4

T
6

T
7

T
8

T
9

T
10

Wall

q = h
h
A
i
AT
lm

AT
lm
=
(T
3
÷T
1
) ÷(T
6
÷T
2
)
ln
(T
3
÷T
1
)
(T
6
÷T
2
)

q = h
c
A
o
AT
lm

AT
lm
=
(T
1
÷T
7
) ÷(T
2
÷T
10
)
ln
(T
1
÷T
7
)
(T
2
÷T
10
)





Nu = f (Re,Pr,L/D,µ
b

o
)
DIMENSIONLESS ANALYSIS TO CHARACTERIZE A HEAT EXCHANGER
µ
µ . .D v
k
C
p
µ .
k
D h.

Nu= a.Re
b
.Pr
c
•Further Simplification:
Can Be Obtained from 2 set of experiments
One set, run for constant Pr
And second set, run for constant Re
q =
k
o
A(T
w
÷ T)
h
Nu =
D
o
•For laminar flow
Nu = 1.62 (Re*Pr*L/D)
•Empirical Correlation
14 . 0
3 / 1 8 . 0
. Pr . Re . 026 . 0
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
o
b
Ln
Nu
µ
µ
•Good To Predict within 20%
•Conditions: L/D > 10
0.6 < Pr < 16,700
Re > 20,000
•For turbulent flow

TYPES OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
Shell and tube heat
exchanger
Done By Moh’d Saad Jalmood
To Dr. Malek Al Ahmed
• Consist of two main
things as it’s name
implies Shell & Tubes
• The shell is a large
vessel with a number of
tubes inside it .
• Types of tubes.
• High temprature and
pressure applications.



• The principle of operation is simple
enough: Two fluids of different
temperatures are brought into close
contact but they are not mixing with each
other.
• One fluid runs through the tubes, and
another fluid flows over the tubes
(through the shell) to transfer heat
between the two fluids.
• The temperature of the
two fluids will tend to
equalize . The heat are
simply exchanged from
one fluid to the other
and vice versa. No
energy is added or
removed.
CONNECTIONS
Standardized sizes for easy assembly. Additional thread
and surface protection for clean installation.
TUBESHEET
U-bend tubes expanded into tube sheet allow for tube
expansions and contractions due to thermal fluctuations
GASKETS
High quality compressed fibers (reusable)
HEAD
Standard cast-iron or steel head for heavy duty services
(also available as a spare part)

MOUNTING
Saddles attached with standard units for quick & easy
mounting .
BAFFLES
Punched baffles with minimum clearances between tubes
assures correct fluid flow and minimized bypass.
SHELL
Welded shell protected with high quality paint for corrosion
resistance .
TUBE BUNDLE
Stainless steel tubes allow for strong, durable performance
over a wide range of applications. Unique tube bundle
layout minimizes buildup problems at the edges and
optimizes media flow in the unit.
APPLICATIONS
• They are extensively used as process heat
exchangers in the petroleum-refining and
• chemical industries; as steam generators,
condensers, boiler feed water heaters and oil
• coolers in power plants; as condensers and
evaporators in some air-conditioning and
• refrigeration applications; in waste heat
recovery applications with heat recovery from
• liquids and condensing fluids; and in
environmental control.
Common types of shell and
heat exchanger


There are many types of shell-tube heat
exchanger but the most common types in
use are :-

• U-Tube Heat Exchanger
• Straight-Tube ( 1-Pass )
• Straight-Tube ( 2-Pass )



U-Tube Heat Exchanger
Straight-Tube ( 1-Pass )
Straight-Tube ( 2-Pass )

SHELL-TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER
COME WITH A DIFFERENT
SHAPES AND SIZES
Check this out !!
U-Tube
Different Shapes
Many of them in just one factory !!

Selection

Heat exchangers are most often selected
via computer programs, either by system
designers, who are typically engineers, or by
equipment vendors.
.
several important selection criteria
include:

High/ low pressure limits
Thermal performance
Temperature ranges
Product mix (liquid/liquid, particulates or high-solids
liquid)
Pressure drops across the exchanger
Fluid flow capacity
Clean ability, maintenance and repair
Materials required for construction
Ability and ease of future expansion
Fouling
Fouling
Occurs when impurities deposit on the heat exchange
surface. Deposition of these impurities can be caused by:

•Low wall shear stress
•Low fluid velocities
•High fluid velocities
•Reaction product solid precipitation
•Precipitation of dissolved impurities due to elevated wall
temperatures.
The rate of heat exchanger fouling is
determined by the rate of particle deposition
less re-entrainment/suppression. This model
was originally proposed in 1959 by Kern and
Seaton.
Maintenance

Heat exchangers need to be disassembled and cleaned periodically.
They can be cleaned by methods such as
\

Methods

In large-scale cooling water systems for heat
exchangers, water treatment such as
purification, addition of chemicals, and testing, is
used to minimize fouling of the heat exchange
equipment. Other water treatment is also used
in steam systems for power plants, etc. To
minimize fouling and corrosion of the heat
exchange and other equipment.
Applications
50
Food & Beverage
Pharmaceutical




















Polymer
Hydrocarbon Processing
Petroleum
Industrial application
Industrial
51
Automotive




















Pulp and Paper
Textile Applications
Vegetable Oil
Mining
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