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Chapter 14 : Kinematics Of A Particle

Work and Energy


2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Chapter Objectives
To develop the principle of work and energy and apply
it to solve problems that involve force, velocity, and
displacement.
To study problems that involve power and efficiency.
To introduce the concept of a conservative force and
apply the theorem of conservation of energy to solve
kinetic problems.
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Chapter Outline
The work of a Force
Principle of Work and Energy
Principle of Work and Energy for a System of
Particles
Power and Efficiency
Conservative Forces and Potential Energy
Conservation of Energy
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
A force F does work on a particle only when the
particle undergoes a displacement in the direction
of the force.
The Work of a Force
Consider the force acting on
the particle
If the particle moves along
the path s from position r to
new position r, displacement
dr = r r
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Magnitude of dr is represented by ds, differential
segment along the path
If the angle between tails of dr and F is , work
dU done by F is a scalar quantity
dU = F ds cos
dU = Fdr
Resultant interpreted in two ways
1) Product of F and the component of
displacement in the direction of the force ds cos
1) Product of ds and component of force in the
direction of the displacement F cos
The Work of a Force
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
If 0 < < 90, the force component and the
displacement has the same sense so that the work
is positive
If 90 < < 180, the force component and the
displacement has the opposite sense so that the
work is negative
dU = 0 if the force is perpendicular to the
displacement since cos 90 = 0 or if the force is
applied at a fixed point where displacement = 0
Basic unit for work in SI units is joule (J)
The Work of a Force
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This unit combines the units for force and
displacement
1 joule of work is done when a force of 1 newton
moves 1 meter along its line of action
1J = 1N.m
Moment of a force has this same combination of
units, however, the concepts of moment and work
are in no way related
A moment is s vector quantity, whereas work is a
scalar
The Work of a Force
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Work of a Variable Force.
If the particle undergoes a finite displacement
along its path from r
1
to r
2
or s
1
to s
2
, the work is
determined by integration.
If F is expressed as a function of position, F =
F(s),
} }
= =

2
1
2
1
cos .
2 1
s
s
r
r
ds F dr F U u
The Work of a Force
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
If the working component of the force, F cos , is
plotted versus s, the integral in this equation can
be interpreted as the area under the curve from
position s
1
to position s
2
The Work of a Force
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Work of a Constant Force Moving Along a
Straight Line.
If the force F
c
has a constant magnitude and acts
at a constant angle from its straight line path,
then the components of F
c
in the direction of
displacement is F
c
cos
The Work of a Force
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
The work done by F
c
when the particle is
displaced from s
1
to s
2
is determined
) ( cos
cos
1 2 2 1
2 1
2
1
s s F U
ds F U
c
s
s
c
=
=

}
u
u
or
The work of F
c
represents the area of the
rectangle
The Work of a Force
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Work of a Weight.
Consider a particle which moves up along the
path s from s
1
to position s
2
.
At an intermediate point, the displacement dr =
dxi +dyj + dzk. Since W = -Wj
y W U
y y W Wdy
k dz j dy i dx j W dr F U
y
y
r
r
A =
= =
+ + = =

}
} }
2 1
1 2
2 1
) (
)
~
~ ~
).(
~
( .
2
1
2
1
The Work of a Force
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Work done is equal to the magnitude of the
particles weight times its vertical displacement.
If W is downward and y is
upward, work is negative
If the particle is displaced
downward (-y), the work of
the weight is positive.
The Work of a Force
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Work of a Spring Force.
The magnitude of force developed in a linear
elastic spring when the spring is displaced a
distance s from its unstretched position is F
s
= ks.
If the spring is elongated or compressed from a
position s
1
to s
2
, the W.D on spring by F
s
is
positive, since force and displacement are in the
same direction.
The Work of a Force
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2
1
2
2
2 1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
ks ks
ds ks ds F U
s
s
s
s
s
=
= =
} }

This equation represents the


trapezoidal area under the line
F
s
=ks
The Work of a Force
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If a particle is attached to a spring, then the force
F
s
exerted on the particle is opposite to that
exerted on the spring.
The force will do negative work on the particle
when the particle is moving so as to further
elongate (or compress) the spring.
|
.
|

\
|
=

2
1
2
2 2 1
2
1
2
1
ks ks U
The Work of a Force
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 14.1
The 10-kg block rest on a smooth incline. If the
spring is originally stretched 0.5 m, determine the
total work done by all forces acting on the block
when a horizontal force P = 400 N pushes the
block up the plane s = 2 m.
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Horizontal Force P. Since this
force is constant, the work is
determined using
( )
J
m N U
P
8 . 692
30 cos 2 400
=
=

Spring Force F
s
. The spring is stretched to its
final position s
2
= 0.5 + 2 = 2.5 m. The work is
negative since force and displacement are in
opposite directions.
Example 14.1
View Free Body Diagram
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The work of F
s
is thus
J m M N m M N U
s
90 ) 5 . 0 )( / 30 (
2
1
) 5 . 2 )( / 30 (
2
1
2 2
=
(

=
Weight W. Weight acts in the opposite
direction to its vertical displacement, the work is
negative.
J m N U
W
1 . 98 ) 30 sin 2 ( 1 . 98 = =

Example 14.1
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Normal Force N
B
. This force does no work
since it is always perpendicular to the
displacement.
Total Work. The work of all the forces when
the block is displaced 2 m is thus
J U
T
505 1 . 98 90 8 . 692 = =
Example 14.1
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Principle of Work and Energy
Consider a particle P, which at
the instant considered located
on the path as measured from
an inertial coordinate system
For the particle in the
tangential direction, F
t
= ma
t
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
mv mv ds F
dv mv ds F
s
s
t
v
v
s
s
t
=
=

}
}

}
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For principle of work and energy for the particle,
2
1
2
2 2 1
2
1
2
1
mv mv U =

Term on the LHS is the sum of work done by all
the forces acting on the particle as the particle
moves from point 1 to point 2
Term on the RHS defines the particles final and
initial kinetic energy
Both terms are always positive scalars
Principle of Work and Energy
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
2 2 1 1
T U T = +

The particles initial kinetic energy plus the work
done by all the forces acting on the particle as it
moves from initial to its final position is equal to the
particles final kinetic energy
For example, if a particles initial speed is known
and the work of all the forces acting on the particle
can be determined, the above eqn provides a direct
means of obtaining the final speed v
2
of the particle
after it undergoes a specified displacement
Principle of Work and Energy
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
If instead v
2
is determined by means of the
equation of motion, a two step process is
necessary, apply F
t
= ma
t
to obtain a
t
, then
integrate a
t
= v dv/ds to obtain v
2
.
Principle of work and energy cannot be used to
determine forces directed normal to the path of the
motion since these forces do no work on the
particle
For curved paths, however, the magnitude of the
normal force is s function of speed

Principle of Work and Energy
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PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS
Work (Free-Body Diagram)
Establish the initial coordinate system and draw a
FBD of the particle to account for all the forces that
do work on the particle as it moves along its path

Principle of Work and Energy
Apply the principle of work and energy


The kinetic energy at the initial and final points is
always positive since it involves the speed squared
2 2 1 1
T U T = +

2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
A force does work when it moves through a
displacement in the direction of the force
Work is always positive when the force component
is in the same direction as its displacement,
otherwise, it is negative
Forces that are functions of displacement must be
integrated to obtain the work
Graphically, the work is equal to the area under the
force-displacement curve
The work of a weight is the product of the weight
magnitude and the vertical displacement
PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
It is positive when the weight moves downwards
The work of the spring is in the form of


where k is the spring stiffness and s is the stretch
or compression of the spring
2
2
1
ks U
s
=
PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS
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Principle of Work and Energy for a
System of Particles
Principle of work and energy can
be extended to include a system of n
particles isolated within an enclosed
region of space
An arbitrary ith particle, having a
mass m
i
, is subjected to a resultant
force F
i
and a resultant internal force
f
i
, which each of the other particles
exerts on the ith particle
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2
2
2
1
2
1
) ( ) (
2
1
2
1
2
1
i i t
s
s
i t
s
s
i i i
v m ds f ds F v m
i
i
i
i
= + +
} }
Principle of work and energy for the ith particle
Since both work and force are scalars, the results
may be added together algebraically,

}

= + +
2
2
2
1
2
1
) ( ) (
2
1
2
1
2
1
i i t
s
s
i t
s
s
i i i
v m ds f ds F v m
i
i
i
i
We can write this equation symbolically

= +
2 2 1 1
T U T
Principle of Work and Energy for a
System of Particles
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Equation states that the systems initial energy
plus the work done by all the external and internal
forces acting on the particles of the system is equal
to the systems final kinetic energy
Internal forces on adjacent articles will occur in
equal but opposite collinear pairs, the total work
done by each of these forces will not cancel out
since paths over which corresponding particles
travel will be different
Principle of Work and Energy for a
System of Particles
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Two important exception:
1. if the particles are contained within the
boundary of a translating rigid body, the internal
forces will undergo the same displacement and
therefore the internal work will be zero
2. Adjacent particles exert equal but opposite
internal forces that have components which
undergo the same displacement and therefore
the work of these forces cancels

Principle of Work and Energy for a
System of Particles
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
- if the body is assumed to be non-rigid, the
particles of the body are displaced along different
paths and some of the energy due to force
interactions would be given off and lost as heat
or stored in the body if permanent deformations
occur
particles connected by inextensible cables make up
a system that has internal forces which are
displaced by an equal amount.
Principle of Work and Energy for a
System of Particles
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Work of Friction Caused by Sliding.
Consider a case when a body is sliding over the
surface of another body in the presence of friction
Consider a block translating a distance
s over a rough surface
Principle of Work and Energy for a
System of Particles
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
If the applied force P just balances the resultant
frictional force
k
N then due to equilibrium a
constant velocity v is maintained


Sliding motion will generate heat, a form of
energy which seems not to be accounted for in the
work energy equation
Model the block so that the surfaces of contact
are deformable (nonrigid)
2 2
2
1
2
1
mv N Ps mv
s k
= +
Principle of Work and Energy for a
System of Particles
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Rough portions at the bottom of the block act as
teeth and when the block slides these teeth deform
slightly and either break off or vibrate due to
interlocking effects and pull away from teeth at the
contracting surface
Principle of Work and Energy for a
System of Particles
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
As a result, frictional forces that act on the block
at these points are displaced slightly, due to
localized deformations, and then they are replaced
by other frictional forces as other points of contact
are made
At any instant, the resultant F of these frictional
forces remain essentially constant,
k
N, however,
due to many localized deformations, the actual
displacement s of
k
N is not the same
displacement s as the applied force P
Principle of Work and Energy for a
System of Particles
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
s < s and the external work done by the resultant
force will be
k
Ns and not
k
Ns
the remaining work
k
N(s s) manifests itself as
the increase in internal energy which in fact,
causes the block temperature to increase
Principle of Work and Energy for a
System of Particles
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
The 17.5-kN automobile is traveling down the 10
inclined road at a speed of 6 m/s. if the driver jams
on the brakes, causing his wheels to lock,
determine how far s his tires skid on the road. The
coefficient of the kinetic friction between the wheels
and the road is
k
= 0.5
Example 14.2
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Work (Free-Body Diagram). The normal
force N
A
does no work since it never undergoes
displacement along its line of action. The weight
17.5-kN, is displaced s sin 10 and does positive
work. The frictional force F
A

does both external and internal
work. This work is negative
since it is in the opposite
direction to displacement.
Example 14.2
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Applying equation of equilibrium normal to the road,
N N F
N N
N N F
A A
A
A n
1 . 8617 5 . 0
1 . 17234
0 10 cos 17500 ; ; 0
= =
=
= =


+
Principle of Work and Energy.
{ } 0 ) 1 . 8617 ( ) 10 sin ( 17500 ) / 6 (
/ 81 . 9
17500
2
1
2
2 2 1 1
= +
|
.
|

\
|
=

s N s N s m
s m
N
T U T

Example 14.2
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Solving for s yields
s = 5.75 m
Example 14.2
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For a short time the crane
lifts the 2.50-Mg beam with
a force of F = (28 + 3s
2
) kN.
Determine the speed of the
beam when it has risen s =
3 m. How much time does it
take to attain this height
starting from rest.
Example 14.3
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Work (Free-Body Diagram). The towing force
F does positive work, which must be determined by
integration since this force is a variable. The weight
is constant and will do negative work since the
displacement is upwards.
Example 14.3
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Principle of Work and Energy.
2 / 1 3
2 3 3 3 3 3
2 3
0
3 3 2
2 2 1 1
) 8 . 0 78 . 2 (
) 10 ( 25 . 1 ) 10 ( 525 . 24 ) 10 ( ) 10 ( 28
) 10 )( 50 . 2 (
2
1
) 81 . 9 )( 10 )( 50 . 2 ( ) 10 )( 3 28 ( 0
s s v
v s s s
v s ds s
T U T
s
+ =
= +
= + +
=
}

With s = 3 m,
s m v / 47 . 5 =
Example 14.3
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Kinematics. Since we were able to express
the velocity as a function of displacement using v =
ds/dt
s
s s
ds
t
dt
ds
s s
79 . 1
) 8 . 0 78 . 2 (
) 8 . 0 78 . 2 (
3
0
2 / 1 3
2 / 1 3
=
+
=
= +
}
Example 14.3
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The platform P is tied down so that the 0.4-m long
cords keep a 1-m long spring compressed 0.6-m
when nothing is on the platform. If a 2-kg platform
is placed on the platform and released from rest
after the platform is pushed down 0.1-m, determine
the max height h the block rises in the air, measure
from the ground.
Example 14.4
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Work (Free-Body Diagram). Since block is
released from rest and later reaches its maximum
height, the initial and final velocities are zero. The
weight does negative work and the spring force
does positive work.
The initial compression in the spring is s
1

= 0.6 + 0.1 = 0.7 m. Due to the cords, the
springs final compression is s
2
= 0.6 m
(after the block leave the platform). The
bottom of the block rises from a height of
(0.4 0.1) m = 0.3 m to a final height h.
Example 14.4
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Principle of Work and Energy.
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2 2 1 1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
mv y W ks ks mv
T U T
=
)
`

A
|
.
|

\
|
+
=

Note that here s
1
= 0.7 m > s
2
= 0.6 m and so the
work of the spring will be positive
| | 0 } ) 3 . 0 ( ) 62 . 19 (
) 7 . 0 )( / 200 (
2
1
) 6 . 0 )( / 200 (
2
1
{ 0
2 2
=
(

+
m h N
m m N m m N
h = 0.963 m
Example 14.4
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Packages having a mass of 2-kg are delivered from
a conveyor to a smooth circular ramp with a
velocity of v
0
= 1 m/s. If the radius of the ramp is
0.5 m, determine the angle =
max
at which each
package begins to leave the surface.
Example 14.5
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Work (Free-Body Diagram). The weight W =
2(9.81) = 19.62 N does positive work during the
displacement. If a package is assumed to leave the
surface when =
max
then the weight moves thru
a vertical displacement of [0.5 0.5cos
max
] m
Example 14.5
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Principle of Work and Energy.
There are two unknowns,
max
, v
2
{ }
1 ) cos 1 ( 81 . 9
) )( 2 (
2
1
) cos 5 . 0 5 . 0 ( 62 . 19 ) 1 )( 2 (
2
1
max
2
2
2
2 max
2 2 1 1
+ =
= +
=

u
u
v
v
T U T
Example 14.5
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Equations of Motion. Applying equation of motion
in the normal direction to the forces on the FBD.
|
|
.
|

\
|
= +
5 . 0
2 cos 62 . 19
2
v
N
B
u
When the package leaves the ramp at =
max
, N
B

= 0 and v = v
2
, equation become
905 . 4
cos
2
2
v
= u
Example 14.5
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Solving for the two equations, we have

7 . 42
735 . 0 cos
max
max
=
=
u
u
Example 14.5
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The block A and B have a
mass of 10-kg and 100-kg
respectively. Determine the
distance B travels from the
point where it is released
from rest to the point its
speed become 2 m/s.
Example 14.6
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Work (Free-Body Diagram). The
cable force T and reactions R
1
and R
2

do no work, since these forces
represent the reactions at the
supports and consequently do not
move while the blocks are being
displaced. The weights both do
positive work as they are assumed to
move downward.
Example 14.6
View Free Body Diagram
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Principle of Work and Energy.
{ }
{ } { }
)
`

+ = A + A + +
)
`

+
= A + A +
)
`

+
=

2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2 2 1 1
) 2 )( 100 (
2
1
) )( 10 (
2
1
) ( 981 ) ( 1 . 98 0 0
) (
2
1
) (
2
1
) (
2
1
) (
2
1
A B A
B B A A
B B A A B B A A
v s s
v m v m
s W s W v m v m
T U T
Example 14.6
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Kinematics.
l s s
B A
= + 4
A change in position yields the displacement
equation
B A
B A
s s
s s
A = A
= A + A
4
0 4
Both of these displacements are positive downward,
taking time derivative yields
s m v v
B A
/ 8 4 = = m s
B
883 . 0 = A
Example 14.6
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Power and Efficiency
Power
It is defined as the amount of work performed per
unit of time.
The power generated by a machine or engine that
performs an amount of work dU within a time
interval dt is
dt
dU
P =
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Provided the work dU is expressed by dU = F.dr,
then it also possible to write
P = F.v
Power is a scalar, where in the formulation v
represents the velocity of the point which is acted
upon by the force F.
SI unit for power is watt (W). It is defined as
1 W = 1 J/s = 1 N.m/s
Power and Efficiency
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Efficiency
It is defined as the ratio of the output of useful
power produced by the machine to the input of
power supplied to the machine
input power
output power
= c
Power and Efficiency
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
If energy applied to the machine occurs during
the same time interval at which it is removed, then
the efficiency may also be expressed in terms of
the ratio of output energy to input energy
input energy
output energy
= c
The efficiency of a machine is always less than 1
Power and Efficiency
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
The power supplied to a body can be computed
using the following procedure.
Determine the external force F acting on the body
which causes motion.
If the body is accelerating, it may be necessary to
draw its free-body diagram and apply the equation
of motion (F = ma) to determine F.
Once F and v is found, power can be determined
with the formula (P = F.v = Fv cos )
PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
In some problems the power may be found by
calculating the work done by F per unit of time
dt dU P
t U P
avg
/
/
=
A A =
or
PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 14.7
The motor M of the hoist
operates with an efficiency of =
0.85. Determine the power that
must be supplied to the motor to
lift the 375-N crate C at the
instant point P on the cable has
an acceleration of 1.2m/s
2
, and a
velocity of 0.6 m/s
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
First we determine the tension in the cable. From
the FBD,

= + = + +
c y y
a T ma F
81 . 9
375
375 2 ;
Since , taking time derivative of this
equation, and substituting a
P
= +1.2 m/s
2
l s s
P C
= + 2
2
/ 6 . 0
2
s m a
a a
C
P C
=
=
N T 0 . 199 =
Example 14.7
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
The power output required to draw the cable in at a
rate of 0.6 m/s is
W v T P 4 . 119 = =
This power output requires that the motor provide
a power input of
W
output power input power
5 . 140 ) 4 . 119 (
85 . 0
1
) (
1
= =
=
c
Example 14.7
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
The sport car has a mass of 2-Mg and is traveling
at a speed of 25m/s, when the brakes to all the
wheels are applied. If the coefficient of kinetic
friction is
k
= 0.35, determine the power developed
by the friction force when the car skids. Then find
the cars speed after it has skid 10 m.
Example 14.8
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
As shown in the FBD, the normal force N
C
and
frictional force F
C
represent the resultant forces of
all four wheels. Applying the equation of equilibrium
in the y direction to determine N
C
,

= = | + kN N F
C y
62 . 19 ; 0
The kinetic frictional force is
kN kN F
C
867 . 6 ) 62 . 19 ( 35 . 0 = =
Example 14.8
View Free Body Diagram
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
s m v
v
T U T
/ 59 . 23
) 2000 (
2
1
) 10 )( 10 ( 867 . 6 ) 25 )( 2000 (
2
1
2 3 2
2 2 1 1
=
=
=

The velocity of the car can be determined when s =
10 m by applying the principle of work and energy
The power of the frictional force at this instant is
kW v F P
C
172 = =
Example 14.8
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Conservative Forces and Potential
Energy
Conservative Force.
It is defined by the work done in moving a particle
from one point to another that is independent of the
path followed by the particle.
Two examples are weight of the particle and
elastic force of the spring.
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Potential Energy.
It is the measure of the amount of work a
conservative force will do when it moves from a
given position to the datum.
Gravitational Potential Energy.
If a particle is located a distance y above an
arbitrary selected datum, the particles weight W
has positive gravitational potential energy V
g
.
Conservative Forces and Potential
Energy
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
W has the capacity of
doing positive work when
the particle is moved back
down to the datum.
The particle is located a
distance y below the datum,
V
g
is negative since the
weight does negative work
when the particle is moved
back up to the datum.
Conservative Forces and Potential
Energy
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
If y is positive upward, gravitational potential
energy of the particle of weight W is
Wy V
g
=
Elastic Potential Energy
When an elastic spring is elongated or
compressed a distance s from its unstretched
position, the elastic potential energy V
e
can be
expressed
2
2
1
ks V
e
+ =
Conservative Forces and Potential
Energy
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
V
e
is always positive since,
in the deformed position, the
force of the spring has the
capacity for always doing
positive work on the particle
when the spring is returned
to its unstretched position.
Conservative Forces and Potential
Energy
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Potential Function.
If a particle is subjected to both gravitational and
elastic forces, the particles potential energy can be
expressed as a potential function
e g
V V V + =
Conservative Forces and Potential
Energy
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Conservative of Energy
When a particle is acted upon by a system of both
conservative and non-conservative forces, the
portion of the work done by the conservative forces
can be written in terms of the difference in their
potential energies using
( )
2 1
.
2 1
V V U
cons
=

As a result, the principle of work and energy can
be written as
2 2 . 2 1 1 1
) ( V T U V T
noncons
+ = + +

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(U
1-2
)
noncons
represents the work of the non-
conservative forces acting on the particles.
If only conservative forces are applied to the
body, this term is zero and we have
2 2 1 1
V T V T + = +
This equation referred to as the conservation of
mechanical energy or simply the conservation of
energy
Conservative of Energy
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It states that during the motion the sum of the
particles kinetic and potential energies remain
constant.
Conservative of Energy
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System of Particles.
If a system of particles is subjected only to
conservative forces, then an equation can be written

+ = +
2 2 1 1
V T V T
The sum of the particles initial kinetic and potential
energies is equal to the sum of the particles final
kinetic and potential energies
const V T = +

Conservative of Energy
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PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS
The conservation of energy is used to solve
problem involving velocity, displacement and
conservative force systems.
It is easier to apply than the principle of work and
energy because the energy equation requires
specifying the particles kinetic and potential
energies at only two points along the path.
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Potential Energy.
Draw two diagrams showing the particle located
at its initial and final points along the path
If the particle is subjected to a vertical
displacement, establish the fixed horizontal datum
from which to measure the particles gravitational
potential energy.
PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Data pertaining to the elevation y of the particle
from the datum and the extension or compression s
of any connecting springs can be determined from
the geometry associated with the two diagrams.
Recall V
g
= Wy, where y is positive upward from
the datum and negative downward from the datum,

2
2
1
ks V
e
=
is always positive
PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Conservation of Energy
Apply the equation
2 2 1 1
V T V T + = +
When determining the kinetic energy,
the particles speed v must always be measured
from an inertial reference frame.
2
2
1
mv T =
PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Example 14.9
The gantry structure is used to test the response of
an airplane during a clash. The plane of mass 8-Mg
is hoisted back until = 60, and then pull-back
cable AC is released when the plane is at rest.
Determine the speed of the plane just before
clashing into the ground, = 15. Also, what is the
maximum tension developed in the supporting
cable during the motion?
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Potential Energy. For convenience, the datum
has been established at the top of the gantry.
Example 14.9
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Conservation of Energy.
s m v
v
V T V T
B
B
B B A A
/ 5 . 13
) 15 cos 20 )( 81 . 9 ( 8000 ) 8000 (
2
1
) 60 cos 20 )( 81 . 9 ( 8000 0
2
=

=
+ = +

Example 14.9
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Equation of Motion. Using data tabulated on the
free-body diagram when the plane is at B,
kN T
N T
ma F
n n
149
20
) 5 . 13 (
) 8000 ( 15 cos ) 81 . 9 ( 8000
;
2
=
=
=

+
Example 14.9
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
The ram R has a mass of 100-
kg and is released from rest
0.75-m from the top of a spring,
A, that has a stiffness k
A
= 12
kN/m. If a second spring B,
having a stiffness k
B
= 15 kN/m
is nested in A, determine the
max displacement of A needed
to stop the downward motion of
the ram.
Example 14.10
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Potential Energy. We will
assume that the ram compresses
both springs at the instant it comes
to rest. The datum is located
through the center of gravity of the
ram at its initial position. When the
kinetic energy is reduced to zero
(v
2
= 0) A is compressed a distance
s
A
and B compresses s
B
= s
A
0.1
m
Example 14.10
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Conservation of Energy.
)
`

+
)
`

+ + = +
)
`

+ + = +
+ = +
) 75 . 0 ( 981
) 1 . 0 )( 15000 (
2
1
) 12000 (
2
1
0 0 0
) 1 . 0 (
2
1
2
1
0 0 0
2 2
2 2
2 2 1 1
A
A A
A B A A
s
s s
Wh s k s k
V T V T




Example 14.10
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Rearranging the terms,
m s
s s
A
A A
331 . 0
0 75 . 660 2481 13500
2
=
=
Using the quadratic formula and solving for the
positive root,
Since s
B
= 0.331 0.1 = 0.231 m, which is positive,
the assumption that both springs are compressed
by the ram is correct.
Example 14.10
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A smooth 2-kg collar C, fits loosely
on the vertical shaft. If the spring is
unstretched when the collar is in
the position A, determine the
speed at which the collar is moving
when y = 1 m if (a) it is released
from rest at A, and (b) it is
released at A with an upward
velocity v
A
= 2 m/s.
Example 14.11
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Part (a)
Potential energy. For convenience, the datum
is established through AB. When the collar is at C,
the gravitational potential energy is (mg)y, since
the collar is below the datum and the elastic
potential energy is

s
CB
= 0.5 m which represent the stretch in the
spring
2
2
1
CB
ks
Example 14.11
View Free Body Diagram
2007 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
+ =
)
`

+
)
`

= +
)
`

+ = +
+ = +
s m v
v
mgy ks mv
V T V T
C
C
CB C
C C A A
/ 39 . 4
) 1 )( 81 . 9 ( 2 ) 5 . 0 )( 3 (
2
1
) 2 (
2
1
0 0
2
1
2
1
0 0
2 2
2 2
Example 14.11
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Part (b)
Conservation of Energy. If v
A
= 2 m/s,
using the data from the FBD, we have
+ =
)
`

+
)
`

= +
)
`

+ = +
+ = +
s m v
v
mgy ks mv mv
V T V T
C
C
CB C A
C C A A
/ 82 . 4
) 1 )( 81 . 9 ( 2 ) 5 . 0 )( 3 (
2
1
) 2 (
2
1
0 ) 2 )( 2 (
2
1
2
1
2
1
0
2
1
2 2 2
2 2 2
Example 14.11
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CHAPTER REVIEW
Work of a Force.
A force does work when it undergoes a
displacement along its line of action.
If the force varies with the displacement, then
}
= ds F U
Graphically, this represents the area under the F-
s disgram
If the force is constant, then for a displacement
s in the direction of the force, U = Fs
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A typical example of this case is the work of
weight, U = Wy.
y is the vertical displacement.
A spring force, F = ks, depend upon the
elongation or compression s of the spring
The work is determined by integration to be
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
ks ks U =
CHAPTER REVIEW
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The Principle of Work and Energy.
If the equation of motion in the tangential
direction, F
t
= ma
t
, is combined with the
kinematics equation, at ds = v dv, we obtain the
Principle of Work and Energy
2 2 1 1
T U T = +

Initial kinetic energy of the particle plus the work
done by all forces that act up on the particle as it
moves equals to final kinetic energy
CHAPTER REVIEW
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The Principle of Work and Energy.
The principle of work and energy is useful for
solving problems that involve force, velocity, and
displacement.
For application, the free-body diagram of the
particle should be drawn in order to identify the
forces that do work.
CHAPTER REVIEW
input power
output power
= c
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Power and Efficiency.
Power is the time-rate of doing work. It is defined
by P = dU/dt, or P = F.v
Efficiency is the ratio of power output to power
input.
Conservation of Energy.
A conservative force is one that does work which
is independent of its path
CHAPTER REVIEW
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Two example are weight of a particle and the
spring force.
Friction is a nonconservative force since the work
depends upon the length of the path.
The work done by a conservative force depends
upon it position relative to a datum.
When this work is referenced from a datum, it is
called potential energy
For weight, it is V
g
= Wy, for spring force,
2
2
1
kx
CHAPTER REVIEW
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CHAPTER REVIEW
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Mechanical energy consists of kinetic energy T
and gravitational and elastic potential energies V.
By conservation of energy, this sum is constant
and has the same value at any two positions on the
path. That is
2 2 1 1
V T V T + = +
If the motion of the particle is caused only by
gravitational and spring forces, then this equation
can be used to solve problem involving
displacement and velocity
CHAPTER REVIEW