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Air Pollution & Control

Thickness of Atmosphere
• The atmosphere is a very thin (relatively) layer of gas over the surface of the Earth • Earth’s radius ~ 6400km • Atmospheric thickness ~ 100km • (If you travel 100km vertically you’d be in space!)

Atmospheric Structure and Composition .

000055%) N2O (0.00001%) Xe (0.Atmospheric components Major Nitrogen(78.039% ) Trace Ne (0.08% ).000524%) CH4 (0. I2 .946%) Minor Argon (0. NH3 .9340% ) Carbon dioxide (0.00003%) CO (0.001818%) He (0.000114%) H2 (0.000179%) Kr (0.000009%) O3 (0 to 7×10−6%) NO2 .H2S . Oxygen (20.

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Composition of the Air  Uniform gases Nitrogen (N2) . Oxygen (O2) . Methane (CH4). trace gases (Neon(Ne). Helium (He). CO2 .)  Variable gases Water Vapor (H2O). Argon (Ar). etc. O3.

The Atmospheric Layers .

Activities observed in atmospheric layers .

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25 mb or 29.Pressure & Density Gravity pulls gases toward earth's surface. and the whole column of gases exerts a pressure of 1000 hPa at sea level.Hg. . 1013.92 in.

Beautiful view of kanchanjangha .

• The standard (average) lapse rate in the lower atmosphere is about 6.Lapse Rate • The rate at which air temperature decreases with height.5°C per 1 km or 3.6°F per 1000 ft. .

• Positive lapse rate & negative lapse rate .6°F per 1000 ft.Lapse Rate • The rate at which air temperature decreases with height.5°C per 1 km or 3. • The standard (average) lapse rate in the lower atmosphere is about 6.

5. where the outer exosphere is not shown. 7. Troposphere Tropopause Stratosphere Stratopause Mesosphere Mesopause Thermosphere Exosphere . 4. 1. 3.Atmospheric Layers 8 layers are defined by constant trends in average air temperature (which changes with pressure and radiation). 8. 6. 2.

mixing of air Most of atmosphere’s mass(80%) .Vertical Structure of Atmosphere • Troposphere (surface to 10-18 km) Upper boundary varies from about 10 km (poles in winter) to about 18 km (tropics)  Polar latitude: surface to 10 km  Moderate latitude: surface to 12 km  Equator: surface to 18 km Temperature range: 15 to -56 0C (30 to -56 0C ) –ve lapse rate Weather and climate layer. all of its water . very turbulent.

Upper region of troposphere is separated by the lower region of the strtosphere in a narrow range called the Tropopause • Stratosphere (10-18 km to 50 km) Polar latitude: 10 to 50 km Moderate latitude: 12 to 50 km Equator: 18 to 50 km Very stable in nature Temperature range: -56 to -2 0C i. lapse rate is +ve Why? .e.

lapse rate is +ve Ozone layer ( absorb UV rays 190nm-380nm ) .e.Upper region of troposphere is separated by the lower region of the strtosphere in a narrow range called the Tropopause • Stratosphere (10-18 km to 50 km) Polar latitude: 10 to 50 km Moderate latitude: 12 to 50 km Equator: 18 to 50 km Very stable in nature Temperature range: -56 to -2 0C i.

Upper region of stratosphere is separated by the lower region of the mesosphere in a narrow range called the Stratopause • Mesosphere (50 km to 85 km) Temperature range: -2 to -92 0C Concentration of ozone is very low  Need oxygen to live in this region .

Upper region of mesosphere is separated by the lower region of the thermosphere in a narrow range called the Mesopause Thermosphere/ Ionosphere (85 km to 500 km) Temperature range: -92 to 1200 0C “Hot layer” – oxygen molecules absorb energy from solar Rays warming the air. . Very few atoms and molecules in this Region.

probably contains hydrohen gas in ionized state Very little is known about this layer .Magnetoosphere/ Exosphere (500 km to 2000 km) Temperature range: >1200 0C Air less.

O2. CO2. O2.Characteristics of the various regions of atmosphere Region Troposphere Altitude ( in km) 0 to 18 Temperature (0C) 15 to −56 Major chemical species N2. O+ H2+ Stratosphere 18 to 50 −56 to −2 Mesosphere 50 to 85 −2 to −92 Thermosphere 85 to 500 −92 to 1200 Exosphere 500 to 2000 ≥ 1200 . NO+. O O2. NO O2+. H2O (vapour) O3.

ventilation coefficient. Primary and secondary pollutants: emission standard. commercial and residential air quality standard. temperature inversion (radiation inversion). adiabatic lapse rate. Problems. radiation heat transfer. Global warming and its consequence. oxides of carbon. effect of ozone modification. 1L Lapse rate: Ambient lapse rate. 1L Green house effects: Definition. 2L Smog. particulate. 2L Definition of pollutants and contaminants. destruction of ozone layer by CFC. impact of other green house gases.Air Pollution and Controll Atmospheric Composition: Troposphere. Photochemical smog and London smog.Suspended particulate matter. Sources and effect of different air pollutants. Earth’s heat budget. effective stack height. criteria pollutant. Tropopause and Mesopause. simple global temperature model [Earth as a black body. Control of Global warming. Depletion Ozone layer: CFC. oxides of nitrogen. cyclone separator. 1L . 2L Atmospheric dispersion: Maximum mixing depth. control measure (ESP. Mesosphere. Stratosphere. 1L Standards and control measures: Industrial. 1L Energy balance: Conductive and Convective heat transfer. oxides of sulphur. scrubber (ventury). atmospheric stability. agriculture and marine food. earth as albedo]. catalytic converter. PAN. bag house. smokestack plumes and Gaussian plume model. Thermosphere. impact of greenhouse gases on the global climate and consequently on sea water level. Statement with brief reference).

1991. 3. New Age International.. M. 4.. G. Ltd. Prentice-Hall of India Pvt.References/Books 1. T “Environment and Ecology” Dhanpat Rai Publishing Company . K. De. Mandal . Gourkrishna “Environment & Ecology” Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Masters. “Environmental Chemistry”. Dasmahapatra . “Introduction to Environmental Engineering and Science”. A. Ltd. 2..