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8.

1 PHYSICS OF THE ATMOSPHERE

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THE ATMOSPHERE .AERODYNAMICS The study of objects in motion through air and the forces that produce such motion.

) OXYGEN Human breathing Fuel combustion  keep aircraft flying THE ATMOSPHERE .Nitrogen  21% . carbon dioxide. helium.Oxygen  1% . neon.Other Gases (argon. hydrogen.ATMOSPHERIC CONTENT • Composition of air : 78% . etc.

25 millibars or 101.325 kPa PRESSURE Column of air extending from sea level upward PRESSURE . or 1013.92 in Hg.69 psi or 29. ‘Air has weight’  Pressure  weight (force) pressing down on a given area  Weight decreases with increasing height  Sea level atmospheric pressure under standard condition ( 15° C / 59° F )     14.

Atmospheric pressure decreases with altitude PRESSURE .

cools TEMPERATURE .98˚C per 1000 ft o Standard day temperature at sea level  15˚C / 59˚F o Temperature does not affect much on aircraft in flight but it does affect the variations of humidity o Humidity affect flight operation Warm air rises.TEMPERATURE Sun radiate heat through atmosphere Earth absorb heat (increase air temperature on surface) o Decrease with increasing altitude o Constant (-55˚C) above 55 000 ft (12 km) o Decrease at a lapse rate of 1. expands.

Change of temperature with height TEMPERATURE .

Effect of temperature on take-off run and Rate of Climb COLD WINTER DAY HOT SUMMER DAY • Aircraft requires longer runway for takeoff on damp day than on dry day HUMIDITY .

225 kg/m3 DENSITY .DENSITY  ‘Air is compressible’  Compressed air  more dense (less space occupied by air)  Density = measure of air thickness  Density varies directly with pressure Low altitude  more dense High altitude  less dense  Density at sea level is 1.

Density affect the aerodynamic performance of aircraft ALTITUDE HIGH Altitude LESS Density Greater speed and distance LOW Altitude GREATER Density Same Horsepower Less speed and less distance DENSITY .

HUMIDITY  Amount of water vapor in air (condition of moisture or dampness)  Temperature influence the maximum amount of water vapor that the air can hold  Higher air temperature  absorb more water vapour  Density of air varies with humidity  Density on damp day (hot day) is less than density on dry day (cold day) HUMIDITY .

THE ATMOSPHERE The whole mass of air extending upward for hundreds of miles from the earth (320 km in depth) THE ATMOSPHERE .

LAYERS OF ATMOSPHERE THE ATMOSPHERE .

92 in Hg 1013.225 kg/m3 .69 psi 29. pressure and density at varying altitudes ISA TEMPERATURE • 15˚C • 59˚F PRESSURE • • • • • 14.INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ATMOSPHERE (ISA) o Atmospheric conditions vary around the world due to changes in the properties of the atmosphere o Established to provide a common reference for temperature.325 kPa 1 atm DENSITY • 1.25 milibar 101.

Q CODE • To similarise the altitude reference of all aircraft • Due to variable atmospheric condition around the world • 3 type of code : – QFE – QNH – QNE : aircraft height above airfield : Aircraft height above sea level (local condition) : Aircraft height above sea level (ISA condition) .

• IAS is less thab TAS in altitude. .AIRSPEED • Speed of sound is 331m/s at sea level with temperature 0oc • Mach number as reference to speed of sound at that altitude • Speed of sound reduce with reduce in temperature • Indicated Airspeed(IAS) is direct reading from gauge measured by dynamic air pressure of aircraft • True airspeed(TAS) is true flying speed base on actual atmospheric condition.