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Concept of a Farm

Activity 2:

Using the previous grouping: discuss the question and
make a creative representation

What is a farm?

Who is the farmer?

 Organized decision making unit in which crop
and livestock production is carried out with the
purpose of satisfying farmer’s goal/s

 Highly organized integrated set of operation
which exists in a complex of natural, social,
political and economic environment
Attributes of Farming System

1. It is location or condition specific

3. It is farmer-based or farmer-driven

5. It is participatory

7. It is process-oriented

9. It is integrative or holistic
Farming systems is location
Moisture regime
– Rainfed
– Irrigated

– Flat lands
– Hilly lands
– Highland
Farming system is farmer-
 Farmer is the main actor and decision maker in
the farm

 His goals, aspirations, skills, capabilities and his
ways of making decisions in a given situation is
crucial that influences farm activities

 Farmer is the central feature of the farm
Farming system is participatory

Farming is dynamic and constantly

Needs direct participation of farmers or
farmer groups

There is interaction with others like
researchers. (should have partnership)
Farming system is process-oriented

Activities or planned changes or
modifications should be done in due

Step-wise implementation of changes to
allow learning in the process
Farming system is integrative

Relates how the output of one component
can be the input of the other component
Typology of Farming Systems

1. Based on enterprise mix
2. Dominant crops/enterprise
3. Based on agro-environment
4. Based on use of inputs
5. Based on “central” feature of the farm
6. “Evolving types” of farming system
7. Specialized farming system
Based on enterprise mix/es

Monocropping – planting of one type of
crop at a given time

Diversified – there is diversity in crop and
animal species grown at any time in the
Multiple cropping in Pooc 2, Silang, Cavite.
Based on dominant crops

Rice-based farming system – rice as the
dominant crops
– Other crops or animals can still be
Rice – duck system
Rice and azolla
Pineapple-based farming system –
pineapple is the main source of income
Pineapple + papaya in Pooc 2, Silang, Cavite
 Coconut-based farming system – coconut as the over
storey canopy (coconut + pineapple + citrus)
Coconut + cassava cropping system in Sitio Dulangan
3, Baco, Mindoro Occidental
Fruit trees-based farming system where a
particular fruit tree species (mango,
cashew, etc) is the dominant species
Based on agro-environment

Based on water source

Based on elevation
– (highland, hilly land, lowland)

Based on topography
– Flatland (lowland), hillyland/undulating/steep
Intercropping of brocolli and lettuce, carrot in a different
plot (organic farm in Indonesia)
Intercropping in
an organic farm
in Indonesia
Based on the use of inputs

High-external input farming system –
associated with modern/conventional
scientific agriculture

– Characterized with the use of chemical
fertilizers, pesticides, HYVs, farm
Low-external input farming system –
farming chemical free (purist perspective)

– Emphasizes recycling within the farm and
utilization of available farm resources
– Nature farming, organic farming, biodynamic
– Minimal application of external resources
Organic farm in Indonesia
Based on central or unique feature

Airstrip is the central feature but with farm

Crop centered

Livestock centered
Evolving types

Farm resort

Agro-tourism oriented farming system

Recreational or “hobby” farming system