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Exploring Brand-person relationships: Three life histories


Age Education Occupation Marital Status Family Cultural Orientation 59 High School Education Barmaid Married Empty-Nesters (Strong Ties with married Children) Italian married to a Canadian After a limited expression of ethnic identity finds tilted towards her Italian Roots. Connects with any thing that is Italian


Life Stage Ready for retired life but want to continue working for some extra money(agreed cause) but really like to be in company of people especially Italian people(Hidden cause) Ready to retire, retired people, Not many inspirations, Desire to go back to the roots

Generation Cohort


• Her Childhood was a constant struggle for sustaining in life and home • She developed excellent house keeping skills to prove her worth • Now when she looks for Brands she also seeks that characteristics • Any thing that survived for long period got to be good(Just as I survived as I was good and hard working )

• INTEGRITY & HONESTY is the of utmost importance rest every thing is secondary

Pasta Sauce. Auntie Jean. Henry Being the Best) Helping others. Recognition from others “Oh.5 Jean Goals Concerns About Herself To sustain in life and help others in doing same About the people who do not do anything for themselves Survival through Excellence She wants to do whatever she does in best possible way (Bed Sheets. I love you” “What a beautiful house I have” Sources of Pleasure .

“I just Like a nice house” Is a Italian by heart. People at Bar In childhood she went through tense moments of loosing the house. but went through “limited expression of her ethnic identity” for her family. That tension has remained with her for her life. David. Visit Italy.6 Jean Pain She feels deeply for the people who do not do any thing for themselves. Italy is becoming synonymous with “Home” Likes to speak with Italians at work place Tension Issues . Now she wants to be more Italian.

Utmost importance. Over the years need to be self sufficient and in control has set in. Many of her choices are influences by Family. Any change needs to be initiated and strongly backed by friends(or Family) Sense of belonging to the community.7 Jean Motivation To sustain through excellence. However not very great influencer in the decisions Family Friends and Community . Loyalty to family more than the self loyalty.

8 JEAN – Socio Demographic profile • Belongs to a group of 55.65 year olds who • have worked hard for all their lives • Are about to retire or have just retired • Children are grown up and have moved on • Financially secured but not affluent • Want to be in their homes till their death • Very few inspirations to travel • A treasure of old memories and extremely low appetite and desire to try out any thing new • Have a feeling of “having lived a fulfilling life” • Slowly community taking over the space traditionally occupied by family (extended included) .

Honey-of-a-Ham store.9 JEAN’S Brand selection process • Word of mouth. Friends Recommend • Eg. Jenn Air. Gloria. DeMoulas salad dressing • Past experience of Functional performance • Eg. ShimmerLights Shampoo • Emotional attachment • Eg. General Electric iron. Progresso bread crumbs and vinegar because it is Italian . Electrolux • Quality and service • Eg.

Jell-o pudding.Nestle’s Quick Kohler Sink (Friends and family) Pastene Tomatoes (Kitchen Ready) Comet sink cleaner General Electric irons Aussie Miracle shampoo Estee Launder(Mom) Skippy Peanut Buter (Tried Shimmer Lights(MY others but always came Shampoo!!!!!!) back) .10 JEAN’s Brand Story Jean’s Brands Rever Ware Stainless Steel Hunts Special Sauce Philip Berio Olive Oil Progresso bread crumbs & vinegar Contadian Tomato Paste Johnnie’s Foodmaster meat De Mulas salad Dressing(Friends by chance) Honey-of-a-Ham (QualityItalian craze for food) Bounty paper towels Jenn-Air Fridgeidaire refrigerator Electrolux vacuum cleaner Tide detergent G ‡ loria(Service) Bugles Snacks. Team Cereals(Doughters).

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Carefully augmented over the years I want to have the best I have worked for them and I deserve them . Brands that have “survived” Very large.12 JEAN’s Brand Story Products or categories form Shimmer Lights(MY her “inner sanctum” of Shampoo!!!!!!) brands Self Gratification Best for me Common things among the brands Size of brand set Characteristics of the relationships she has with the various brands in the portfolio of brands she uses Brands which are there for a long time.

13 JEAN’s Brand Motives Brand Rever Ware Stainless Steel Pastene Tomatoes Hunts Special Sauce Philip Berio Olive Oil Progresso bread crumbs & vinegar Type of relationship Functional Functional Functional Emotional(Italian Origin) Emotional Reason for Buying Sauce doesn’t burn Best taste for sauce For addition of taste She feels that the taste is better They are Italian Continue after 5 year? Yes Maybe May be yes yes Johnnie’s Foodmaste meat Contadian Tomato Paste Bounty paper towels Emotional Functional Functional They taste good For addition of taste She likes using them Yes No May be .

expressive Functional She has heard about it Extremely good experience with product She believes that it is the best No Yes Yes Tried because her old brand.14 JEAN’s Brand Motives Continue After 5 Years? Jenn-Air Fridgeidaire refrigerator Electrolux vacuum cleaner Comet sink cleaner Perceived Value Self-expressive Self.expressive Does not make her hair flat It dissolves in the water Gifted by someone May Be No Yes . No Bon Ami degraded in quality Aussie Miracle shampoo Tide Detergent General Electric irons Functional Functional Self.

15 KAREN Age Education Occupation Marital Status Family Cultural Orientation 39 Collage Dropout Office manager at Southern University Divorced 2 Girls aged 8 &12 American .

Really does not know what to do next. Really Confused .16 Karen Life Stage Generation Cohort At the door steps of forty. Divorced Single Mother of 2 at forty.

money is always short so looks for the bargains even in day to day brands. however the brand should be strong: there is no place for weak brands in her life: They are just not dependable!(like her ex) • Great (perceived)Value at the best Price . strong. never to remarry again • Wants to give her children a big push something she never got • She has lost confidence in herself and looks for a reliable. dependable BRAND(some things she did not find in her husband) • Being a single mother of 2.17 Karen • Has constant fear that she might turn like her mother.

Has strong belief and desire to succeed in life Her Kids. Even though she does not say that she does think that her ex was not really dependable. never to get married again She thinks she was done well enough to be here but just missed on the marriage part. Give them better options than what she got.18 Karen Goals Wholly centered around children. Her athletic looks and her feeling younger than actual age(Still drinking coke) Concerns About Herself Sources of Pleasure . Find a new husband She might go her mothers way.

She needs a Husband and wants a better career: Time is running out (Almost 40) Financially ok but does not have much left for self Hectic schedule leaves very little time for herself Even nearing 40 there is much yet to be done Issues . Not being able to get ahead with her career Her kids need her.19 Karen Pain Tension Not having a man in her life.

To lead a better life in future Just two daughters Friends and Community Not many too busy with kids and self .20 Karen Motivation Family To bring up kids in better way.

21 Karen– Socio Demographic profile • A 39 year old single mother of 2 daughters • Not really brand conscience but unconsciously very much brand dependent • Enough Income to keep the family in quite a well manner • Office job that is quite flexible if needed • A feeling that best of the life’s achievements are yet to come • A drive and energy to keep looking for those achievements • An extreme desire to get the ex out of life and move ahead but stalled by the realities of life • Not many friends as free time available is really limited • Family ties extremely minimal may be only during the festivals • In General category items brand really does not mater • But when it comes to high involvement items Brand plays very importance role .

22 Karen’s Brand selection process • Convenience and affordability • availability • discounts • Recommendation (mother. ex-husband) • Cognitive miser • Products to maintain her youth and vigor • Eg. Reebok Shoes. Mary Kay Cosmetics .

Surf Comet Joy M ‡ iracle Whip Dove Success Rice ‡ Gateway Ban Mary Kay Gatorade Reebok Coke . Cheer.23 Karen’s – Brand Story Detergent: Tide.

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Gatorade No very brand conscious. This brand works for me ‡ . Most of the well known brands are good Relatively smaller Longer relationship.25 Karen’s – Brand Story Products or categories form her “inner sanctum” of brands Common things among the brands Size of brand set Characteristics of the relationships she has with the various brands in the portfolio of brands she uses Mary Kay.

Cheer. Depend on.26 Karen’s – Brand Story Brand Type of relationship Reason for Buying Not able to distinguish between brands.Sale. display Feels it is one-of-a-kind Preferred over Apple Mother used to buy Get away from Jim Get away from Jim Believes it keeps her younger. I need all the energy I can get Emotional attachment 5 yrs Later NO NO May Be No NO NO YES YES No May Be Detergent: Functional Tide. Surf Success Rice Comet Gateway Joy Ban Miracle Whip Mary Kay Dove Gatorade Reebok Functional Functional Functional Emotional Emotional Emotional Emotional Functional Emotional Emotional Dislikes Ajax because of low performance NO . location. This is perfect Feels Good Likes the taste.

27 Vicki’s Brand selection process • Some thing which is differentiated from rest • eg. Ivory. Opium • Suggestions from friends • Self Identity • This fragrance suits me and projects me good • Past beliefs • Eg. Victoria’s Secret. B&M Baked Beans and Friendly’s Ice Cream .

28 Vicki Age Education Occupation Marital Status Family Cultural Orientation 23 Studying Post Graduation Student Unmarried Lives of her own. but still strongly connected with the family American .

First Job .29 Vicki Life Stage Generation Cohort On verge of First Job Just finished collage.

do not want to loose out on anything • What she really needs is a boy friend who could be future husband • Parents are important for providing means and support moral but mostly expressed through materials • Variety Seeking Behaviour .30 Vicki • Is not sure if continue education for some more time or get a job • Wants to try out many things.

31 Vicki Goals Concerns Not clear on Career front. Friends and Family . Getting married is important Does not have a boy friend About Herself Sources of Pleasure I am good the way I am. I do not wear mask and I stand by my views Material belongings.

What to do with the career.32 Vicki Pain Tension No Boy Friend! What am I going to do after collage I might remain single for long. What if I wear this than that? Issues . I do not want a job in which I am not happy No real issues but perceived ones like how should I project myself.

33 Vicki Motivation Family Family and friends Highly supportive both financially and emotionally Friends and Community Highly dependent on friends. Needs them for emotional support and guidance . Can not let them go as time passes.

34 Vicki– Socio Demographic profile • A 23 year old single student studying for post graduation • Extremely brand conscious • Wants to express herself through brands • Brands keep on changing along with the internal struggle to identify with true inner self • Need for continuous endorsement some times in the form of the endorsement of the brands • With the brands which I use I make a statement about myself • I am what my brands are • I am very faithful and serious person only top end brands with youth and integrity will do .

Toothpaste ‡ Intimate Musk JordacheLove Giorgio Aveda Elixir Aromatics Mint B&M baked beans Tetley Dow Rosemary Shampoo Friendly’s Lysol Metadent. Bali C ‡ rest.35 Vicki’s – Brand Story Ivory.Toothpaste .Soap. Conditioner Soft n dry Opium Victoria’s Secret Maidenform. Playtex. Shampoo.

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She is just getting to know brands and they are just “my brands” nothing else Normal flow from well doing family brands like Ivory to more personality oriented brands like Opium. Victoria’s Secret “Variety Seeker” Just getting introduced to brands: Brands complete me! Most of the brands she is so found of now will be given up .37 Vicki’s – Brand Story Products or categories form her “inner sanctum” of brands Common things among the brands Size of brand set Characteristics of the relationships she has with the various brands in the portfolio of brands she uses May be IVORY.

Conditioner Type of relationship Self Expressive Reason for Buying Wants everyone to associate her with Ivory 5 yrs Later No Crest. Playtex.Soap. Shampoo. Maidenform.Toothpaste Soft n dry Opium Intimate Musk Jordache Love Musk Functional Emotional Self Expressive Self Expressive Emotional Suits best for her needs Peer Recognition People notice her She wants to be smelt like it Bought during Christmas May Be May Be No No Musk Victoria’s Secret. Bali Aveda Elixir Emotional For different types of use and at different time of the day Depends on her mood No Emotional May be .38 Vicki’s – Brand Story Brand Ivory.

39 Vicki’s – Brand Story Brand Type of relationship Reason for Buying 5 yrs Later Aromatics Mint Rosemary Shampoo Self Expressive Given by her friend Self Expressive Given by her fried No No B&M baked beans Friendly’s Tetley Lysol Dow MetadentToothpaste Emotional Emotional Emotional Emotional Functional Functional She loves to have them For the pleasure of taste Does not know about anything better at that time( used by mom) Because her mom uses it Dow is the new and Improved Product Its new science No No May Be No Yes No .

Self centered Who am I Why Buy? Why Brands? Family Family Life Cycle Maslow’s Hierarchy What she needs To explore To ensure quality Single Parent Extended Full Nest 2 Safety and Security Esteem Needs I want to see what is the best Single . Overworked Mother and a Woman with a life ahead Vicky Aggressive. Helpful Survivor and achiever What she needs To ensure quality Nuclear Family Empty Nest Social Karen Detached.40 Socio Demographic Profile Jean Personality I am Complaint.

Karen switches between different five brands of detergents buying whatever is on sale. Casual friends or buddies Friendship low in affect and intimacy. exclusive commitment long term. . Intended for long term.Relationship and Brand Relationship Form Arranged marriages Definition Non-voluntary union imposed by preference third party. although at low levels of affective attachment. characterized by sporadic or infrequent engagement. Examples When married Karen adopted her husband’s favorite brands.

. intimacy. socially supported union high in love. trusts and commitments to stay together This is the relationship form Jean has with the most of the brands she uses for cooking and cleaning. voluntarily imposed.Relationship Form Marriages of convenience Definition Long term committed relationship precipitated by environmental influences vs deliberate choice Examples After a move of residence Viki can’t buy her favorite brands of baked beans which makes her reluctantly switches to competing brand. Committed partnerships Long term.

In karen’s phase of finding her feet after divorce. . At work Karen could choose between Gateway and an Apple computer. honesty and intimacy. characterized by true self. Rebounds/avoidance driven relationship Union precipitated by desire to move away from prior to available partner as opposed to attraction to chosen partner. She choose the prior as she dislikes Apple computer. morning running means a lot to her and a symbol of her new self. In this connection “Reebok” is the best friend to her.Relationship Form Definition Examples Best Friendships Voluntary union based on a principle of reciprocity.

Kinships Non-voluntary union with lineage ties Vicki and Karen have inherited some brand preferences from their mothers. enduring friendship characterized by lower involvement.Relationship Form Compartmentalized friendship Definition Highly specialized. . situational confined. Examples Vicki uses different types of perfume brands to display different sides of herself at different situations.

45 References • Brand Management Research. Theory and Practice by • • • • Tide Heding Brand Management by Kevin Strategic Brand Management By Kevin Possesion and extended Self By Russel Consumer Behavior By Schauffman and Kanuk .

46 •Thank You .