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Body Language

The gestures, postures, and facial expressions by which
a person manifests various physical, mental, or
emotional states and communicates nonverbally with
-- The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Types of body language
• Eye contact
• Face
• Posture
• Hand Gestures
• Personal space
• Body contact

To express each and every feeling or emotion, words are not necessary.
Importance of Body
Ekman and Friesen have distinguished
three levels of nonverbal cues:
 Informative Behaviour
 Interactive Behaviour
 Communicative Behaviour
• One’s Appearance
• The way we move
• The face tells much
• Reading Body Language
• How prevalent is Non verbal
• Body Language in Groups
• Personal space as it relates to Body
• Tactile communication –Its touching
• Nonverbal attributes
• Environmental Influences
Space: Distance doesn’t Lend
• Intimate
– Close phase (0-6”) Lovers embracing,
soft whispering occurs
– Far phase(6”-18”) Mother-Child looking
at book together; close friends
discussing secret; audible whispering.
• Personal
– Close phase (18”-30”) Husband and wife
planning a party; parent-child in friendly
conversation; soft voice when indoors;
full voice outdoors
• Personal
– Far phase(30”-40”) Discussion of
subjects of personal interest and
involvement; social exchange over cup
of coffee.
• Social
-- Close phase 4’ – 7’ Impersonal business
discussions; discussions with fellow
workers on the job
--Far phase 7’-12’ More formal business
• Public
--Close phase 12’-25’ voice is loud but not
full volume; one person addressing a

1. Brisk, erect walk 1. Confidence
2. Standing with hands on 2. Readiness, aggression
hips 3. Boredom
3. Sitting with legs 4. Open, relaxed
crossed, foot kicking
slightly 5. Defensiveness
4. Sitting, legs apart 6. Dejection
5. Arms crossed on chest 7. Evaluation, thinking
6. Walking with hands in 8. Rejection, doubt, lying
pockets, shoulders 9. Doubt, disbelief
hunched 10. Anger, frustration,
7. Hand to cheek apprehension
8. Touching, slightly 11. Apprehension
rubbing nose 12. Boredom
9. Rubbing the eye
10. Hands clasped behind
Non verbal Behaviour Interpretation
1. Rubbing hands 1. Anticipation
2. Sitting with hands 2. Confidence, superiority
clasped behind head, 3. Sincerity, openness,
legs crossed
3. Open palm
4. Pinching bridge of nose, 4. Negative evaluation
eyes closed 5. Impatience
5. Tapping or drumming 6. Lack of self-confidence;
fingers insecurity
6. Patting/fondling hair
7. Interest
7. Tilted head
8. Trying to make a decision
8. Stroking chin
9. Looking down, face 9. Disbelief
turned away 10. Insecurity, nervousness
10. Biting nails 11. Indecision
11. Pulling or tugging at ear
Paralanguage- Vocal associate of
• It refers to those nonverbal
characteristics associated with the
production of words through speech.
• These include
– Pitch,
– Voice quality
– Rate and rhythm of speech.
In a Class Set up

The amount of liking we have for another person is primarily communicated by body
What do they convey ?
What has happened?
n s
s i o
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Facial Expressions
• William D. Brooks, Philip Emmert. Interpersonal
Communications, Wm.C.Brown Company publishers. (Pages
• Fast,Julius.Body language.New York:Pocket Books,1971
• Mehrabian,Albert. Silent messages. Wadsworth publishing
Co., 1971
• Knapp,Mark L. Nonverbal Communication in Human
New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston,1972.
• Search engines: Images and Datas from Google,
• Nonverbal Communications

• Gestures: Body Language and Nonverbal Communication 
Thank you