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INTRODUCTION TO TECHNICAL TEXTILES(GEO-TEXTILE, MEDICAL TEXTILE.

,ETC)

By Gurumurthy.B.R brgmurthyfad@yahoo.com/gurumurthy.15701@lpu.co.in

Technical Textiles

Definition

are textile materials manufactured mainly for their technical performance and functional properties.
Technical Textiles
Other terms used
  


 

Industrial Textiles Functional Textiles Performance Textiles Engineering Textiles Invisible Textiles High-tech Textiles

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Technical Textiles

Some examples of day-to-day use of Technical Textiles
   

Kitchen –Floor Mops, Tea Bags, Coffee Filters. Clothes – Collar / Cuff Interlinings, Shoulder Pads, Waddings in Jackets. Shoe – Lining, Insoles, Toe Stiffners, Synthetic Uppers. Car – Carpets, Roof-liners, Seat belts, Tyres, Airbags.


    

Civil Engineering – Geotextiles in Roads, Railway Tracks, Soil Erosion, Slope Stabilisation, Flyovers, Pond/Canal lining, Landfills.
Furnishing – Carpets, Vertical Blinds, Wall Coverings. Factory – Dust Collection Filter Bags, Liquid Filtration, Clean Air Filters of AC systems, Battery separators. Hospital – Masks, Gowns, Caps, Bandage. Hygiene – Baby Diaper, Sanitary Napkin, Wet Tissues, Incontinence Diaper. Bed – Blanket, Quilts, Mattresses, Bed sheets, Pillows.
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TYPES OF TECHNICAL TEXTILES
According to the end use, technical textiles can be divided into different categories. AGROTECH: These are the Agro-textiles, also known as Agrotex, that are used in agricultural applications releated to growing and harvesting of crops and animals. BUILDTECH: These are the Construction Textiles, also known as Buildtex, used in construction and architectural applications. Such fabrics as PVC coated high tenacity PES, teflon coated glass fiber fabrics are used in airports and hotels. CLOTHTECH: These are the clothing textiles, also known as clothtex. GEOTECH: These are the Geotextiles, also known as Geotex, which are woven, nonwoven and knit fabric used for many functions such as support, drainage and separation at or below ground level:

TYPES OF TECHNICAL TEXTILES
HOMETECH: These are the Domestic Textiles, also known as Hometex, used in making of many home furnishing fabrics including carpet backings, curtains, wall coverings, etc. INDUTECH: These are the Industrial Textiles, also known as Indutex, used in different ways by many industries for activities such as separating, and purifying industrial products, cleaning gases. MEDTECH: These are the Medical Textiles, also known as Medtex. They include all the medical fabrics that are used in health and hygiene applications in both consumer and medical markets. MOBILTECH: These textiles, also known as Mobiltex, are used in transport industry, such as in construction of automobiles, railways ships etc. ECO TECH(OEKOTECH): These are the Eco-friendly Textiles, also known as oekotex or Ecotex. They are mostly used in environmental protection applications, floor sealing, erosion protection, air cleaning, prevention of water pollution, water cleaning, waste treatment/ recycling, depositing area construction.

TYPES OF TECHNICAL TEXTILES
PACKTECH: These are the packaging Textiles, also known as Packtex. Textiles have been used for packaging since ages. PROTECH: These are the Protective Textiles, also known as Protex, that are used in the manufacturing of protective clothing of different types. Protection against heat and radiation for fire fighter clothing, against molten metals for welders, for bullet proof jackets or for chemical protective clothing all depend on the use of protech. The protective textiles are made with the help of specialty fibers such as aramid fiber used in making of bullet proof jackets, glass fibers used in fire proof jackets etc. SPORTTECH: These are the sports Textiles, also known as sporttex, used mainly for making sports wear including sports shoes and other sports accessories.

Technical Textile Products Inspected By QA Wing of DGS&D
 MEDITEX :       

Surgical Gloves , Bandage cloth , Wool Cotton Obsorvant & Coir Mattresses. BUILDTEX: - Cotton canvas tarpaulins , HDPE tarpaulins, Mats Door & Matting Coir. HOMETEX:- Mosquito Net. CLOTHTEX:- Shoes Canvas, Jungle Boots, P.C.Suiting ,shirting, Terry Towel, Blankets etc. PACKTEX:- HDP Bags, B-twill Bags. SPORTEX:- Tents, Sleeping Bags. INDUTEX:- Ropes. PROTEX:- High visibility Cloths, Mosquito Net fire retardant. MOBILTEX:- Helmets, Webbing, Tyre & Tubes.

World Scenario

Technical Textiles

Fibre Consumption of textiles
Technical textiles 22%

17 43
Textle consumption 78%

Total consumption – 60 bn. kgs. (2000)
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World Scenario

Technical textile consumption by Region

Technical Textiles

USA 23% Rest of World 32%

India 3% Japan 7% China 13%

Western Europe 22%

Total consumption – 17 bn. kgs. (2000) 9

World Scenario

Technical Textiles

Fiber consumption in Technical Textiles
Cotton 7% Jute , coir e tc 14% O the rs* 1%

Glass 15%

Viscose 3% O the r Ce llulosic 3%

Polyolifin 25%

7% Po ly a mi de

Polye ste r 25%

* - Others include specialised fibres & yarns / high performance fibres /yarn.

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World Scenario

Technical Textiles

Product wise consumption

Unspun fibres 24%
Yarn Type Products 9%

Fabric 67%

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World Scenario

Technical Textiles

Global end use of fabric
Knitted Fabrics 5% Other Fabrics 2%

Non woven Fabrics 20% Woven fabrics 73%

Total fabric consumption – 11 bn. kgs. (2000)
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World Scenario

Technical Textiles

End use consumption of nonwoven fabrics

medtech 33% indutech 12% hometech 12%
Others 14%

agrotech 2% geotech 3% mobiltech 6% packtech 1% protech 1% sporttech 1%

bulidtech clothtech 15% 14%

Total consumption – 2.2 bn. kgs. (2000)
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Segmentation of Indian Technical Textiles market

Packtech 35% Oekotech Geotech 0% 1%
Agrotech 1%

Protech 3% Meditech 4% Buildtech 5% Clothtech 17%

Sportech 7% Mobiltech 7% Indutech 8% Hometech 12%

SASMIRA

WHAT IS AGROTEXTILE
• • Special textiles that are manufactured for agricultural applications These textile structures are used as controlling environment for plants/animals in applications like

– – –

Agriculture Horticulture Animal husbandry

Benefits Of Agrotextile Products

Used in Protected Cultivation For Indian Agriculturists for improved Productivity & Quality Of Produce and lower Cost Of Production

MOT,GOI Workshop, 18.9.08

SASMIRA

FACTORS INFLUENCING AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES
• Sunlight – direct and indirect • Water • Climatic Conditions including wind, hail, humidity • External factors like birds, insects, weeds • Post Harvest handling of produce – storage and packaging • In India, presently Agricultural Activities are carried out under Natural Conditions of Temperature and Humidity
MOT,GOI Workshop, 18.9.08

SASMIRA

CONSEQUENCES OF ABSENCE OF CONTROL FACTORS
• Yield percentage is unsatisfactory • Quality of produce is marred • Damages to the produce • Regional limitation on cultivation • Seasonal limitation on cultivation

THE ABOVE FACTORS CAN BE EFFECTIVELY CONTROLLED USING AGROTEXTILE PRODUCTS

MOT,GOI Workshop, 18.9.08

SASMIRA

AGRO TEXTILE PRODUCTS AND THEIR APPLICATION IN AGRICULTUR
PRODUCT CROP PRODUCE APPLICATION IN AGRICULTURE FLORICUL TURE HORTICULTURE POST HARVESTING ANIMAL HUSBANDARY FISHING

KNITTED NETS
 SHADING  BIRD PROTECTION  WIND SHIELDS      

 ANTI-HAIL
 HARVESTING  FISHING  MILCHING  PACKAGING  SUPPORT NETS 


    

MOT,GOI Workshop, 18.9.08

SASMIRA AGRO TEXTILE PRODUCTS AND THEIR APPLICATION IN AGRICULTURE Contd…
PRODUCT CROP PRODUCE APPLICATION IN AGRICULTURE FLORICUL TURE HORTICULTURE POST HARVESTING ANIMAL HUSBANDARY FISHING

NONWOVEN FABRICS
   MULCHMAT CATTLE SHED UNDERLAY PROTECTIVE CLOTHING


WOVEN FABRICS
   PACKING SACKS SUNCREENS PROTECTIVE CLOTHING         

PLASTIC SHEETS
  GROUND COVERS GREENHOUSE FILMS       

MOT,GOI Workshop, 18.9.08

SASMIRA

Agrotextile Product Details
 Bird Protection Net
 Polypropylene monofilament / Polyethylene Tape yarns, Warp

knitted, 2 – 3 cm mesh size, 40 – 80 g/sq.m. Woven structures of lighter weight are also used

 Shading net
 Polypropylene monofilament / Polyethylene Tape yarns, Warp

knitted, mesh size as per the required shading %, 40 – 80 g/sq.m. Woven structures of lighter weight are also used

 Windshield fabrics
 Polypropylene monofilament / Polyethylene Tape yarns, Warp

knitted, mesh size as per the required wind blocking %, 40 – 90 g/sq.m. Woven structures of lighter weight are also used

MOT,GOI Workshop, 18.9.08

SASMIRA

Agrotextile Product Details, contd..
 Plant nets
 Polypropylene monofilament / Polyethylene Tape

yarns, Warp knitted, Strips of nets with large opening, 30 -40 g/sq.m

 Harvesting nets
 Polypropylene monofilament / Polyethylene Tape

yarns, Warp knitted, Flat nets of square or triangular construction, of mesh size 8 – 12 mm, 40 – 90 g/sq.m. Woven structures of lighter weight are also used

MOT,GOI Workshop, 18.9.08

SASMIRA

Agrotextile Product Details, contd..
 Mulch Mat
 Polypropylene, spunbonded, 60 – 80 g/sq.m.

Woven biodegradable structures are also used

 Packing Material
 Polyethylene Tape yarn, Warp knitted, 50 – 60

g/sq.m

MOT,GOI Workshop, 18.9.08

SASMIRA

OEKOTECH
& VARIOUS PRODUCTS

To
PROTECT ENVIRONMENT
MOT,GOI Workshop, 18.9.08

SASMIRA

OEKOTECH
   Oekotech is an important areas of technical textiles. Used for environmental protection and waste disposal. Its use is based on environmental damages for: • Building demolition • Power plant ash • Sewage treatment sludge • Incinerated waste ash • Municipal waste • Untreated hospital waste • Hazardous waste • Radioactive waste

MOT,GOI Workshop, 18.9.08

SASMIRA

OEKOTECH PRODUCTS & USES
• • • • • • • Geogrids - reinforce slopes beneath the waste, walls, cover soils above geomembranes; Geonets - in-plane drainage; Geomembranes – a barrier to liquids, gases and/or vapors and landfill caps; Geocomposites –for separation, filtration or drainage; Geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) - an infiltration/hydraulic barrier; used also for mine rehabilitation, tunnels, secondary containment Geopipes - landfill applications to facilitate collection and rapid drainage of the leachate to a sump and removal system; Geotextiles - filtration purpose or as cushion to protect the geomembrane from puncture.

MOT,GOI Workshop, 18.9.08

Introduction From ancient times the textile materials were used for medical applications in India viz. surgical sponge, linen, silk sutures, strips, catgut, etc.
Latest technological developments has enabled extensive use of technical textiles in healthcare industry today.

Usage category

In theMedical Textiles – bio-contact for days to months
       

Sutures (biodegradable and non biodegradable) soft tissue implants Artificial tendon (meshes) Artificial ligament Artificial cartilage, Orthopedic implants artificial joint Cardiovascular implants vascular grafts Heart valves

On the Patient – bio-contact for minutes to hours Simple bandages Light support bandages Compression bandages Orthopedic bandages Surgical Gauze Cotton Slings Diapers Eye Pads Drapers Sanitary products Patient Hospital Uniform Adhesive tapes

Categorisation of Technical textiles in Medical Field

In the Patient (Intra-corporal applications) On the Patient Near the Patient For the Patient

Usage category

In the Patient – bio-contact for days to months

       

Sutures (biodegradable and non biodegradable) soft tissue implants Artificial tendon (meshes) Artificial ligament Artificial cartilage, Orthopedic implants artificial joint Cardiovascular implants vascular grafts Heart valves

On the Patient – bio-contact for minutes to hours Simple bandages Light support bandages Compression bandages Orthopedic bandages Surgical Gauze Cotton Slings Diapers Eye Pads Drapers Sanitary products Patient Hospital Uniform Adhesive tapes

Near the Patient – No bio-contact, ordinary contact possible

Bed sheet Pillow cover Other linen items viz. Blanket, Hand Towels etc. Heating Pad

For the Patient – No contact

Face Mask Gowns Caps Aprons Mops Shoe Cover

Areas of usage

Healthcare/ hygiene products
Include bedding, clothing, surgical clothes, products for feminine hygiene like sanitary napkins, baby and adult diapers etc. Non-implantable materials For wound care that includes absorbent pad (wound contact layer, base material viscose, plastic film) and bandages (simple inelastic/elastic, orthopaedic, plasters, gauzes, lint, padding)

A range of natural fibers and biodegradable polymers with non-biodegradable synthetic polymers are being utilised for developing new products in medical textiles. Since the medical textile applications are directly related to the life of human being, these are required to undergo stringent testing and hygienic criteria.

This led to innovative use of variety of fibers and lot of developments taking place in this field.

Fibers used in manufacturing of nonwovens for medical applications

•Cotton •Polyester •Polypropylene •Viscose glass fiber •Wood fluff •Polyamide

Quality Standards as per FDA
Standards prescribed by FDA for some of the items is tabulated below

Item

Threads per Dimensio ns
Wrap 150, Weft 85

Weight in g/m2

Length and Width

Other

Bandage Cloth

57 tolerance of 5% 30 tolerance of 5%

99 % of size mentioned on the label 98 % of size mentioned on the label

Foreign Matter Not more than 2% Foreign Matter Not more than 1% Avg. sinking time not more than 10 secs.

Absorbe Wrap 75, nt Gauze Weft 55

Roll Bandage for POP

Wrap 150, Weft 75

35 tolerance of 5%

98 % of size mentioned on the label

Conclusion

Textiles are very important in all aspects of medicine
and surgery.

Advances in nonwovens have resulted in a new breed
of medical textiles.

Advanced composite materials containing combination
of fibres and fabrics have been developed for applications where biocompatibility and strength are required.

It is predicted that the nonwoven materials will continue
to have greater impact in this sector because of large member of characteristics and performance criteria required from these materials.

MARINE TEXTILES

MOBILTECH
AUTOMOBILES

RAILS
AEROSPACE

MARINE

THEME
FIBRES USED FABRICS & COMPOSITES

APPLICATIONS & PRODUCTS

REQUIREMENTS

TESTS REQUIRED

CONCLUSION

FIBRES USED
COTTON

ARAMID

MOD.ACRYLIC

GLASS

NYLON

PBO,PBI

WOOL

ACRYLIC

POLYPROPYLENE

POLYESTER

CARBON

HPPE

FLAT WOVEN FLAT WOVEN VELVET

KNITTED
CIRCULAR WARP KNIT TRICOT DOUBLE NEEDLE BAR KNIT

FABRICS USED
COATED & LAMINTED
FOAM FABRIC TRIM FABRIC COMPOSITES
USING FIBRES LIKE CARBON,GLASS,ARAMID,BOR ON,CERAMIC WITH RESIN FRP CAN MADE

CHARACTERISTICS OF FIBRES
Resistance to sunlight and UV degradation Abrasion resistance Reduced flammability Soil resistance and easy cleanability Resistant to microbes and other bacteria Hard, strong with high tear as well tensile strength Softer handle and touch

Very high bursting strength(sails)

APPLICATIONS
Sails Inflatable craft Hovercraft skirts Furnishing fabrics Oil booms Nets and Ropes Functional applications
• Life rafts buoyancy tubes, canopies, minesweepers, sonar domes, corrosive-cargo carriers, Life jackets, personal flotation devices.

SAILS
Definition
A Textile material extended on rigging to catch wind and propel a boat.

Requirements:
 light weight, dimensional stability  Puncture resistance, high tear

strength  high seam strength  Low porosity to wind, low water absorbency  Good resistance to microbes
 UV degradation and smoothness

Cont…
 Natural fibres are replaced by polyester and

nylon materials.
 Polyester film laminated on nylon and

polyester fabrics.
 Recent trends are using carbon, ultra high

modulus polyethylene yarns Spectra and
Dyneema
 Aramid fibres are avoided due to poor UV-

stability.

INFLATABLE CRAFT

 Nylon woven fabric (145gsm)  For lighter craft woven from

470dtex.
 Heavier yarns, like 940 d/tex used

for larger boats.
 Aramid fibres at 85gsm can also be

used.

 Life boats and rescue craft
 Freight carrying vessels  Pleasure Craft

 For economical craft polyurethanes

& PVC materials are used.

 Several military applications

FURNISHING FABRICS

 Cruise ships can be regarded as FLOATING

HOTELS. So quality of textiles must be standard
 High flame retardancy standards due to narrow

corridors and low ceilings
 Dyes must be fast to fast to light, rubbing and salt

water
 wool carpets are generally Zirpro treated titanium

/zirconium salt)
 Durable Anti-static properties are needed conductive

fibres are more durable than finishes

HOVERCRAFT SKIRTS
 Nylon fabric is coated with

polychloroprene / natural rubber blend or natural rubber/polybutadiene.
 The nylon cords like 940dtex/2 and 940

dtex/3/3.
 This is highly twisted to impart fatigue

resistance.
 Though aramid fibres are stronger but

Hovercraft can be deployed

due to poor fatigue resistance not used in on terrain such as marshes this application.

where boats cannot go.

OIL BOOMS

 These articles are designed to contain accidental oil spillages in rivers

and ocean.
 woven nylon or polyester as a base fabric(175gsm)coated with Hypalon,

polychoroprene, PVC or PVC/ nitrile rubber, urethane .
 The material should be oil resistant.

ROPES AND NETS
 Where ropes need to stretch and to absorb high-

impact energies.
 Nylon ropes, followed by polyester ropes are popular

olden days.
 Second generation of synthetic fibers-aramid, high-

modulus polyethylene, Vectran & PBOone-tenth its weight when compare to steel.
 The low weight and high strength of HPPE fibres to

produce heavy-duty ropes. Its normally Float on water, are flexible and have a low elongation.

FUNCTIONAL APPLICATIONS
 life rafts, buoyancy tubes, canopies and life

jackets, and personal flotation devices, minesweepers, sonar domes and in corrosivecargo carriers.
 Life jackets made by woven polyamide coated

with butyl or polychloroprene rubber to get gsm of 230–290.
 Quality tests include air porosity, coating

adhesion, breaking and tear strength both in the warp & weft direction, flexing & waterproofness.

CUSTOM BOAT INTERIOR

Nomex@ core, sandwiched between layers of woven aramid fiber

OTHER PRODUCTS

POPULAR BRANDS

TEST METHODS
Property British standards Other related standards ASTM D 3389-94(rotary) Abrasion resistance BS 3424-24:1990 (1996) Methods 27A and 27B BS 5690 (Martindale) Tear strength BS 3424:1982 (1996) Methods 7A, 7B, 7C BSEN 29865(Bundesmann) BS 5066:1974 1993 (WIRA) BS 1932 for yarns and threads BS 3424 Pt 5 for coated fabrics

ASTM D 1424(Elmendorf)

Water resistance – rain tests Tensile strength breaking and elongation Dimensional stability Fogging

AATCC 35-1AATCC 42 (impact)994 ASTM D 751 for coated fabrics / ASTM D 1578-93 yarns by Skein method SAE J883 Jan 94 cold water SAE J315A SAE J1756:1994

BS 4736:1996 cold water

BS AU 168:1978

TESTS FOR PRODUCTS
PRODUCTS
Buoyancy aids, rescue devices Life jackets and personal buoyancy aids Recreational inflatable's

Standard
BSEN 12628:1999

Comments
UL 1123

BSEN 393:1994 to 396:1994

BSEN

-

UL 1180

Upholstery

BS 5790 (PVC)

ASTM D 4852 (attached) ASTM D 3690 (PU/PVC)
(ASTM D 751-98)

Tarpaulins

BS 3408:1992 (1995)

Marine

IMO Regulations e.g. IMO Resolution A471 (XII) for fire resistance

-

MARKET STATUS

Rubber coated fabrics including those coated with natural rubber neoprene,silicone, rubber or butyl rubber will post the fastest gains in 2012. Through 2010 polyester will remain the most commonly used coated fabric because of its low cost and versatility.

CONCLUSION

Geo-Textiles

Reinforcement

MSE

Geo Drains

Geo Separations

Geotextile Applications in Roads

ASTM D4439 defined a geotextile as follows
Geotextile : A permeable geosynthetic comprised solely of textiles. Geotextiles are used with foundation, soil, rock, earth, or any other geotechnical engineeringrelated material as an integral part of a human-made product structure, or system. Due to the very wide range of applications and the tremendous variety of available textiles having widely different properties, the selection of a particular design method or design philosophy is a critical decision that must be made before the actual mechanics of the design process are initiated.

Geotextile Functions and Mechanisms
An overview of geotextiles, alluded applications falling into categories:
 Separation  Reinforcement  Filtration

to

many

 Drainage
 Containment

When properly identified, lead to the design-byfunction method.

Geotextile choices as available
1. Lightweight Wovens 2. Heavyweight

Wovens 3. High Flow Wovens
4. High Strength

Wovens
5. Thermally Bonded

Non-wovens
6. Needle punched Nonwovens

Geotextile Functions and Mechanisms
Separation
Bituminious Courses Designed Thickness Aggregate Bases Geotextile Layer Subgrade

Geotextile Functions and Mechanisms
Filtration and Drainage
Bituminious Courses Aggregate Bases Geotextile Layer Aggregate Drainage Layer

Subgrade

Geotextile Functions and Mechanisms
Reinforcement
This is the synergistic improvement in the total system strength created by the introduction of a geotextile into a soil and developed primarily through the following three mechanisms:

One, lateral restraint through interfacial friction between geotextile and soil/aggregate.
Two, forcing the potential bearing surface failure plane to develop at alternate higher shear strength surface. And three, membrane type of support of the wheel loads.

Geotextile Functions and Mechanisms
Sealing Function
Pavement Crack with Paving Fabric New Overlay Reflective Crack without Paving Fabric Old Pavement Base Course

Major Applications of Geotextiles
Separation of Dissimilar Materials  Between subgrade and stone base in paved roads and airfields  Between landfills and stone base courses  Between geomembranes and soil drainage layers  Between foundation and embankment soils for surcharge loads  Between foundation and embankment soils for roadway fills  Between foundation and encapsulated soil layers  Between foundation soils and rigid retaining walls  Between slopes and downstream stability berms  Beneath precast blocks and panels for aesthetic paving e.g. hardscaping

Major Applications of Geotextiles
Separation of Dissimilar materials  Between drainage layers in poorly graded filter blankets  Between old and new asphalt layers Reinforcement of Weak Soils and Other Materials

 To reinforce embankments  To aid in construction of steep slopes  As basal reinforcement over soft soils  To bridge over cracked or jointed rock  To create more stable side slopes due to high frictional resistance

Major Applications of Geotextiles
Filtration (Cross-Plane Flow)  Beneath stone base for paved roads and airfields  Around crushed stone surrounding under drains  Around perforated under drain pipe  As a flexible form for restoring scoured bridge pier bearing capacity  Between backfill soil and weep holes in retaining walls  Between backfill soil and gabions  As a filter beneath precast blocks

Major Applications of Geotextiles
Drainage (In-Plane Flow)  As a drain behind a retaining wall  As a drain at the base of retaining wall  As a replacement for sand or wick drains

Band Drains / Prefabricated Vertical Drains (PVD)
These are geocomposites formed of a hollow cored, geotextile wrapped drainage element (geonet) inserted vertically into soft ground to speed up the consolidation process.

Prefabricated Vertical Drain

Installation of PVD

Band Drains / Prefabricated Vertical Drains (PVD)
Kandla Port – Ground improvement Band drains has been adopted to increase the bearing capacity of the site. The following parameters have been adopted:
Scheme SBC Spacing of Preload Duration before Band Drain Height (Days) treatment with Triangular (m) (T/m2) Grid (m) 2.00
2.00

SBC after treatment (T/m2)

Scheme-1
Scheme-2

1.25
1.50

4.00
4.00

80
120

10.21
10.11

Band Drains / Prefabricated Vertical Drains (PVD) at Kolkata

Emerging Issues
R&D Needs of the Indian Geotechnical Industry The Need to Encourage the Domestic Synthetic Manufacturing Industry

Need for Establishing a Geosynthetic Institute in India
Standardization in the Field of Geosynthetics Geosynthetics Test Standards and Specifications

Nano technology

Nanotechnology
 is already making today’s products:
 Lighter  Stronger  Faster  Smaller

 More Durable

How small is Nano - small?

Units in nanometers (µm)

Compared to Human Hair

A Human Hair is about 100,000µm wide

Nanotechnology spans many Areas
Information Technology

Mechanical Engineering / Eng. & Robotics

Biotechnology

Transportation

Advance Materials & Textiles

NANOTECHNOLOGY

National Security & Defense

Energy & Environment Aerospace Medicine / Health Food and Agriculture

Key Terms
        

Nonotechnology Nanometer Nanotube Atom Atomic Level System Atomic Structure Fluence (Laser) Defects

   

Dislocation Molecule Molecular Dynamics Computational Materials Science  Newton’s Laws of Motion

Material Sciences
 Atomic – level Simulations: Molecular

Dynamics  Computational Research  Dislocation Dynamics

Emphasis of Research
 Atomic – level Simulations: Molecular

Dynamics  Computational Research  Dislocation Dynamics

Getting a Base Line on Material Molecule Molecular Behavior

Section of Material

Relationship To other Molecules

Determine Starting Point (Initial Conditions) Using Newton’s Second Law of
Classic Motion

mi a  Fi

How Molecule Move…

Applications of Nanotechnology

Current Applications
 burn and wound dressings, water filtration

devices, paints, cosmetics, coatings, lubricants, textiles, memory/storage devices  medical diagnostics, displays, sensors, drug delivery, composite materials, solid state lighting, bio-materials, nano arrays, more powerful computers, protective armor, chembio suits, and chem-bio sensors

Thank you