Infrared Spectroscopic Studies of the Physics and Chemistry of Stellar Evolution with the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared

Astronomy (SOFIA)

R. D. Gehrza and E. E. Becklinb
of Minnesota bUniversities Space Research Association
This talk is at: http://www.sofia.usra.edu/Science/speakers/index.html
1

aUniversity

65th International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy , Columbus, OH, June 24, 2010 R. D. Gehrz

June 24. Gehrz . Columbus. 2010 R. OH.Outline • SOFIA and the Chemical Evolution of the Universe • Science addressed by Infrared Spectroscopy with SOFIA • Summary 2 65th International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy . D.

Studying the Physics and Chemistry of Stellar Evolution with SOFIA The formation of stars and planetary systems The winds and remnants of evolved and dying stars 3 65th International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy . Columbus. Gehrz . OH. D. 2010 R. June 24.

R. June 24. et al. 487 • The SED is dominated by PAH emission. and by the main cooling lines of the neutral and ionized ISM 65th International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy . OH. PASJ. thermal emission from dust grains..Emission from Gas and Dust in Star Forming Clouds NGC2024 • SOFIA is the only mission in the next decade that is sensitive to the entire Far-IR SED of a galaxy that is dominated by emission from the ISM excited by radiation from massive stars and supernova shock waves Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) of the entire LMC (courtesy of F. Galliano) 4 Kandori. Gehrz . 59. D. 2010 R. 2007. Columbus.

and Werner. Backman. D. 2010 R. Columbus. L57 (2006) Whittet et al. ApJ 509. Wong (Rice University) Pestalozzi et al. A&A. L173 (1998) Gezari. ApJ.. 448. 502. 283 (1998) NASA. O'Dell and S. 315.5 45 5 65th International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy .. C.R. L357 (1996) 2.K.Sources Embedded in Massive Cloud Cores Van Dishoech et al. Gehrz . A&A. June 24. OH..

The chemistry of disks with radius and Age • High spatial and spectral resolution can determine where different species reside in the disk • small radii produce double-peaked. 2010 R. D. OH. Columbus. June 24. • Observing many disks at different ages will trace disk chemical evolution 6 65th International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy . Gehrz . wider lines.

000 feet • 112 m observations of HD can be used to determine ISM H/D abundances • Cold HD (T<50K) is a proxy for cold molecular Hydrogen. Columbus. Gehrz . D abundance probes the ISM that has never been cycled through stars Atmospheric transmission around the HD line at 40. June 24. D. 2010 R. OH. • The 112 m line can be used to map the Galactic distribution of cold molecular gas just as 21 cm maps the distribution of neutral hydrogen 7 65th International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy .SOFIA Observations of ISM HD • The 112m ground-state rotational line of HD is accessible to GREAT • ISO detection of SGR B shows that HD column densities of ~ 1017 – 1018 cm-2 can be detected • All deuterium in the Universe was originally created in the Big Bang • D is destroyed by astration in stars • Therefore.

ices. OH. Columbus. and trails emit primarily at the thermal IR wavelengths accessible with SOFIA • IR Emission features from grains. comae.Observing Comets with SOFIA • Comet nuclei are the Rosetta Stone of the Solar System and contain a frozen record of the contents and physical conditions of the primitive Solar Nebula • Comet nuclei. Gehrz . and JWST cannot view comets during perihelion passage due to pointing constraints 8 65th International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy . June 24. D. Herschel. tails. and molecular gases are strongest when comets are near perihelion • SOFIA has unique advantages: IR Space platforms like Spitzer. 2010 R.

2010 R. OH. and organic constituents • Comparisons with IDPs and meteorites • Comparisons with Stardust Spitzer Data The vertical lines mark features of crystalline Mg-rich crystalline olivine (forsterite) 9 • Only SOFIA can make these observations near perihelion 65th International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy . Gehrz . Columbus.SOFIA and Comets: Mineral Grains What can SOFIA observations of comets tell us about the origin of the Solar System? ISO Data • Comet dust mineralogy: amorphous. crystalline. D. June 24.

E.SOFIA and Comets: Gas Phase Constituents What can SOFIA observations of comets tell us about the origin of the Solar System? C. 2007. 661. OH. 1065 B. Woodward et al. ApJ. Columbus. June 24. D. L97 Theory C/2003 K4 Spitzer • Production rates of water and other volatiles • Water H2 ortho/para (parallel/antiparallel) hydrogen spin isomer ratio gives the water formation temperature. ApJ. Gehrz . 2010 R. Bonev et al. 2007. P. a similar analysis can done on ortho/para/meta spin isomers of CH4 • Only SOFIA can make these observations near perihelion 10 65th International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy . 671.

Gehrz . June 24. and/or planetary rings • Spectroscopic observations can reveal the presence and composition of an atmosphere 11 65th International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy .SOFIA and Extra-solar Planet Transits • There are 358 extra-solar planets. satellites. D. OH. more than 59 transit their primary star • SOFIA flies above the scintillating component of the atmosphere where it can detect transits of planets across bright stars at high signal to noise a) HD 209458b transit: a) artist’s concept and b) HST STIS data b) • Transits provide estimates for the mass. radius and density of the planet • Transits can reveal the presence of. 2010 R. Columbus.

L114 HD 189733b 12 65th International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy . Gehrz . 2010 R. Columbus. R. OH. ApJ. 2009. 690.Detection of Biogenic Molecules in Extrasolar Planetary Atmospheres by the transit Method M. June 24. Swain et al. D.

PASJ. R. 59. Columbus. 2007. OH. June 24.SOFIA Will Study the Diversity of Stardust Herbig AeBe Post-AGB and PNe Mixed chemistry post-AGB C-rich AGB O-rich AGB Mixed chemistry AGB Deeply embedded YSO HII region refection nebulae • ISO SWS Spectra: stardust is spectrally diverse in the regime covered by SOFIA • Studies of stardust mineralogy Kandori. et al. 2010 R. D.. 487 • Evaluation of stardust contributions from various stellar populations • Implications for the lifecycle of gas and dust in galaxies 13 65th International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy . Gehrz .

Columbus. June 24. 487 65th International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy .. D. PASJ. Tielens 2008) 14 Kandori. 2010 R. R.Thermal Emission from PAH Rich Objects NGC2024 • A key question is whether portions of the aromatic population of PAHs are converted to species of biological significance • Far-IR spectroscopy can constrain the size and shape of PAH molecules and clusters. 2007. et al. 59. Gehrz . • The lowest lying vibrational modes (“drumhead” modes) will be observed by SOFIA’s spectrometers Vibrational modes of PAHs in a planetary nebula and the ISM (A. OH.

N. June 24. Al • SOFIA’s wavelength and spectral range enables coverage of all forbidden lines and features of astrophysical dust components • Kinematics of the ejection • Contributions to ISM clouds and primitive solar system 15 65th International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy . Mg. Columbus. Ne.SOFIA and Classical Nova Explosions What can SOFIA tell us about gas phase abundances and dust minerology in classical nova explosions? • • • • Amorphous carbon SiC Amorphous silicates Hydrocarbons Nova V382 Vul. 2010 R. O. Gehrz . Spitzer QV Vul • Gas phase abundances of C. OH. D.

June 24.sofia.sofia. OH.html 16 65th International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy .usra.usra. Columbus. D. Gehrz .edu/ This talk: http://www.Summary • • SOFIA will be a premier facility for far-IR and submillimeter spectroscopy for many years It will be especially effective for studies of the physics and chemistry of many stages in the process of stellar evolution:      Regions of star formation and ISM clouds Luminous young stellar objects Proto-planetary disks Comets and planetary atmospheres The winds of evolved stellar systems Our Web site: http://www. 2010 R.edu/Science/speakers/index.

June 24. Columbus. Gehrz .Backup 17 65th International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy . OH. D. 2010 R.

D.Astrochemistry in Star Forming Regions NGC2024 • SOFIA is the only mission that can provide spectrally resolved data on the 63 and 145 m [OI] lines to shed light on the oxygen deficit in circumstellar disks and star-forming clouds • SOFIA has the unique ability to spectrally resolve water vapor lines in the Mid-IR to probe and quantify the creation of water in disks and star forming environments Kandori. Gehrz . R.. et al. OH. PASJ. 59. 2010 R. Columbus. June 24. 2007. 487 18 65th International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy .

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