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TECHNOLOGY APPAREL PRODUCTION

SPREADING
(METHOD, MACHINE TYPE, SPREADING LOSSES & STANDARD)

Submitted by, Anuradha Patil MFTech Gandhinagar 2012 - 2014

SPREADING
 The

process of rolling out layer after layer of cloth, smoothly without wrinkles, in such a manner that the selvedge on one side of the cloth is straight, and parallel to that edge of the cutting table.  It is the process of superimposing lengths of fabric on a spreading table, cutting table, or specially designed surface in preparation for cutting process.  Number of layers of fabric dictated by the number of garments desired and the fabric thickness

OBJECTIVES OF SPREADING PROCESS

Understanding the process of fabric spreading  Factors affecting spreading  Face and nap of the fabric

REQUIREMENTS OF SPREADING PROCESS
Shade sorting  Correct ply direction and adequate lay stability  Alignment of plies  Correct ply tension  Elimination of fabric faults  Elimination of static electricity

SPREADING MODES .

 The availability of the proper spreading equipment may restrict the choices of spreading (and marker types) available for a particular facility  All spreading machines can Not spread all modes of spreading.  .CHOOSING SPREADING MODES The choice of spreading mode often dictates certain methods of fabric handling and the choice of machinery used for spreading.

 .SPREADING MODE The highest quality of spreading is achieved by the Face/ One/ Way.  Each layer of fabric is spread with the face up (usually) permitting the spreader to see all of the face of the cloth to identify any flaws in the fabric. Nap/ One/ Way mode of spreading.

METHODS OF SPREADING Spreading by hand  Spreading using a travelling machine (100 to 150 yards per minute)  .

.SPREADING BY HAND        Time consuming method Require operator on each side of table But necessary for spreading some typical fabrics. like Checked fabrics design. Fabrics with regular repeating patterns. Fabrics with crosswise stripes. Fabrics with a repeating design at intervals of a garment length.

FABRICS PREFERRED FOR HAND SPREDING •Knitted fabric •Crepe fabric •Stretchable fabric (spandex blend) •Checks •Stripes •Regularly repeating pattern etc. .

SPREADING EQUIPMENTS  Spreading table  Spreading machines  Fabric control devices  Fabric cutting devices .

smooth.Splicing marks .Pin/spike table for stripe matching 4. even 2.Air floatation system as a conveyor 3.Spreading table surface must be level.SPREADING TABLE 1.

circular knife etc.  Operator aligns the plies manually  Ply cut with hand shears.MANUAL SPREADING One operator at each side of table.  Ideal for small-scale production  .  Fabric package supported on frame.

MANUAL SPREADING FRAMES Fixed type A very basic fixed size manual spreading machine Eastman Pacemaker Light weight machine with fast pace .

MANUAL SPREADING FRAMES Expandable Basic •Spreading machine that is width size adjustable. Turn Table Spreading Machine . •Has manual edge control.

AUTOMATIC SPREADING TYPE It can be categorized into two categories •Stationary spreaders : portable and fixed Stationary spreaders remain in one position on the table during the spreading process •Travelling spreaders : semi automatic and automatic Travelling spreaders traverse the length of the spread during the spreading process .

Components of spreading machine  Frame or carriage  Wheels travelling in guide rails at the edge of the table  Guide collars to aid the correct unrolling of the fabric. dispensing one ply at a time.  .SPREADING USING A TRAVELLING MACHINE Spreading machines carry the piece of fabric from end to end of the spread.

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BASIC AUTOMATIC SPREADING MACHINE A motor drives the carriage  A platform on which the operator rides  A ply cutting device with automatic catcher holding ends of ply in place  A ply counter Automatic sensing of flaws  .

AUTOMATED SPREADING MACHINES WITH SPECIAL FEATURES •Single ply fabric feeder •Tubular systems •Turntable spreader •Spreader synchronic may .

AUTOMATIC SPREADING MACHINES .

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Width indicator -End treatment devices 1.FABRIC CONTROL DEVICES These are those mechanisms that control fabric as it is carried up and down the table and unrolled by the spreading machine  These include-Tensioning control mechanisms -Positioning devices 1. Edge sensor 2. Turn table  . End catcher 2.

FABRIC CUTTING DEVICES •Knife box contains a cutting unit •Usually a small rotary knife •It cuts across the fabric width when engaged .

FABRIC CUTTING DEVICES MAY .

SPREADING TABLE WIDTH It can support 50-1000kg .

 The task of rearranging the blocked out patterns is tedious and expensive.  The workers involved in this process have to be skilled.PROBLEMS  Matching of checks and stripes in the garment production has always been difficult and time consuming. . since the patterns are cut out with a blocking tolerance.  Traditional methods tend to waste a lot of material.

I.PIN TABLE FOR CHECKS. STRIPS AND PATTERNS SOLUTIONS  The patented VEITH SYSTEM PIN TABLE consists of a slotted aluminum top and NeedleBars underneath. they can be positioned exactly according to the matching conditions of the marker.  The Needle-Bars can be moved freely along the length of the table.  Each Needle-Bar has pins positioned inside the slots of the table top. .e.

with our special pins we can pin the fabric inside the piece area and produce the quality.    The height of the pins can be adjusted with the turn of a hand-wheel.e. fast and avoids tension in the lay package. i. i. Each pin can be individually locked down. So the spreading and pinning is convenient. which avoids damages to the fabric. only the needed quantity of pins have to be used. where it is needed. Each pin has a rounded top. and not outside in the waste region The PIN TABLE is an abstract copy of the .e.

 Prepare your lay for CNC-Cutting  .  Spread and match in one step.ADVANTAGES Improve your quality.  Reduce your relaying operations.  Do the fine cutting after spreading without relaying.  Have lower fabric consumption.

 The various fabric losses outside the marker can be broadly classified into different groups. ends of piece losses. splicing losses. namely ends of ply losses.FABRIC LOSSES: Spreading loss is the fabric loss outside the marker. remnant losses. ticket length losses  . edge losses.

the saving of very less amount of fabric per garment can save quite a large sum of rupees per annum.As the fabric is the major raw material in a garment.  Proper investigation of the fabric losses during the cutting process can help the management to minimize material wastage. which can increase the profit of the organisation substantially.  It is necessary for the management to have good understanding of the spreading performance and the distribution of various types of fabric losses in the cutting process for proper material management.  .

ENDS OF PLY LOSSES These losses may be up to 2 cm at each end or 4 cm per ply.  .  In case of some stable fabrics it may be less and for some unstable fabrics it may be more.  The ends of ply loss is 1-2% of the total fabric usage.  Higher is the fabric length the lesser is the loss.

and also on the precision of edge control during spreading.  Let the fabric edge-to-edge width is 100 cm. Thus wider width fabrics have other benefits besides improved marker efficiency. the consistency of fabric width.  . and the marker width is 3 cm less than the fabric width.  The edge loss is 3%. the loss is 2%.EDGE LOSSES The usable fabric width depends upon the quality of the selvedge. If the fabric edge-toedge width is 150 cm.

 These faults are removed by cutting the lay at the fault point and incorporating splicing position into marker plans  .SPLICING LOSSES Splicing is the process of overlapping the cut ends (the end of one length of fabric and the beginning of another) of two separate pieces of fabrics so that spreading can be continuous.  The splicing losses may vary up to 5% of the total fabric usage.  Splicing is necessary as one roll of fabric is finished and a new roll is taken into use.

 Remnants may also be generated when short lengths of material are left over after the completion of a lay.  .REMNANT LOSSES: Remnant lengths are produced whenever companies separate different shades of fabric pieces and lay up only complete plies.  All remnants are put to one side and cut separately. and are returned to the stores.

 It is important to have well trained employees spreading the fabric so that these problems do not occur. and if the spread fabric leans. it could cause pieces to be cut too small. shading problems can occur.  If the fabric is stretched too tightly.  If the fabric is spread incorrectly. then the pieces could be cut improperly.SPREADING QUALITY CONTROL Poor spreading can cause many problems in the manufacturing process.  .

In addition it should have minimum possible extra outside those measurements. Because nature of fabric is such that fabric width varies piece to piece Elimination of the Fabric Flaws Fabric flaws may be identifies by the supplier or by the spreader. Correct Ply direction For fabrics designated both one way only and one way either way. the spread should contain plies . It must be eliminated by different methods.SPREADING STANDARDS    Alignments of the plies Every ply must comprise at least the length and width of the marker.

 The spreader will experience in laying a ply neatly on top of the others due to either attraction or repulsion of those plies according to how they are charged.  Method to reduce static electricity: .increase the humidity of the atmosphere in the cutting room  . friction may increase the static electricity in the fabric.Elimination of Static Electricity  In spreading plies of fabric containing man made fibres.

  Avoidance of distortion in the spread 1. laid glazed upside down. It contains a lubricant which lubricates the knife blade as it passes through the spread. is normally placed at the bottom of the spread. Also gives stability to the lay if it is to be moved on a table. Avoidance of Fusion during cutting Anti-fusion paper may be used in the same way as interleaving. A layer of glazed paper. 2. . This helps to avoid disturbing the lowest plies on the material in the spread when the base plate of a straight knife passes underneath.

BRANDS •Gerber .USA •Tuka .USA •Eastman .USA •Serkon-Turkey •Cosmotex-Spain •Saber -USA •Veith-Germany •Lectra-France •Oshima-Taiwan •Ramsons-India •Chin Chao –Taiwan .

THANK YOU!!!!! .