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Chapter 10 High- Frequency and HighPower Devices

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Objectives :
1. Concept of Degenerate S/C

2. Understanding of Tunneling Effects ,Transit
Time effects 3. Concept of Negative Resistance 4. Understanding of SCRs 5. Description of IGFET

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Three most commonly conductance devices are

used

negative

(i) Esaki or Tunnel Diode, which depend on quantum mechanical tunneling (ii) Transit Time diodes, which depend on combination of carrier injection and transit-time effects (iii)Gunn diodes, which depend on the transfer of electrons from a high-mobility state to low mobility state.
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Degenerate S/C :

• If the conduction-band electron concentration n exceeds the effective density of states Nc, the Fermi Level is no longer with in the band gap, but lies within the conduction band. When this occurs, the material is called degenerate n-type. Here the region between Ec and EF is mostly filled by electrons • The analogous case of degenerate p-type material occurs when the acceptor concentration is very high and the Fermi level lies in the valance band. Here the region between Ev and EF is almost completely filled with holes.
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Tunnel diode exhibits the important feature of negative resistance over a portion of its I-V characteristics L.Esaki received Noble Prize in 1973 for discovering this effect 5 .Tunnel Diode : The tunnel diode is a p-n junction device that operates in certain regions of its I-V characteristics by the quantum mechanical tunneling of electrons through the potential barrier of the junction.

In fig.d tunneling current decreases with increase in bias giving dV/dI negative 6 .

For forward bias more than negative resistance region the current begins to increase. The forward current now is dominated by diffusion current „ 7 .

Peak tunneling current IP Type-n negative resistance or voltage controlled negative resistance Valley current IV IP/IV is called figure of merit for tunnel diode VP/Vf is the measure of voltage between the two positive resistance regions 8 .

Intrinsic ‘i’ region. Similar devices can be built in the p+-n-i-n+ configuration. 3. n+p region . The device consists of two regions: 1. through which generated holes must drift in moving to the p+ contact. 2. in which electrons resulting from avalanche multiplication drift through the I region.IMPATT DIODE: This device operates by a combination of carrier injection and transit-time effects. at which avalanche multiplication occurs. taking advantage of the higher mobility of electrons compared with holes 9 .

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The negative conductance occurs because of two processes. A further delay due to the transit time of the carriers across the drift region . causing the current to lag behind the voltage in time 1. A delay due to the avalanche process 11 2.

and the cycle repeats itself. L vd  1 1 2 f f  vd 2L Ex: vd=107cm/s for Si . i=5μm then f=1010Hz • f is the operating frequency and vd is the drift velocity for holes • In IMPATT diode the optimum frequency is one-half the inverse transit time vd/L 12 .If the length of the drift region will be chosen such a way that the transit time will be one-half of the oscillation period then the pulses of holes is collected at the p+ contact just as the voltage cycle is completed.

the conduction electrons of some S/C are shifted from a state of high mobility to a state of low mobility by the influence of a strong electric field.The GUNN diode: This device is operated by the transferred-electron mechanism. In transferred-electron mechanism.GaAs the valance band is filled and the central valley of the conduction band normally contains electrons and there is a set of subsidiary minima at L (satellite valley) at higher energy (many kT above) are normally occupied 13 . In normal n.

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15 . Beyond this field (3000V) the electrons will start to jump to the satellite valley. 3. The negative conductivity effect depends only on the bulk properties of the S/C and not on junction or surface effects. Beyond a certain value of electric field velocity of the satellite valley electrons will increase. It is therefore called bulk negative differential conductivity. As the effective mass is very high then velocity decreases with increase of electric field.1. 5. 2. At central valley upto a critical value of the applied field the velocity of the electrons will increase . 4. Further increase in field will shift more number of electrons from central valley to the satellite valley. where the effective mass is 8 times higher because of less dE/dK curvature at satellite valley.

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The negative resistance due to electron transfer occurs at a higher field for InP. 17 . and the electrons achieve a higher peak velocity before transfer.

18 . Because of this process random fluctuation in carrier concentration are quickly neutralized and space charge neutrality is achieved. the instantaneous charge is Q(t )  Q0 e t /  d where τd=€/σ is called the dielectric relaxation time. If τd is negative instead of positive then space charge fluctuations build up exponentially in time.Formation and Drift of Space Charge Domains It can be seen from the continuity equation that a localized space charge dies out exponentially with time in a homogeneous sample with positive conductivity. If the initial space charge is Q0 .

2. This build-up takes place in a stream of electrons drifting from the cathode to the anode and the dipole (called domain) drifts along with the streams as it grows 19 . If a small shift of electron concentration in some region of the device. In normal condition this dipole layer die out quickly 3. Under negative conductivity. the charge within the dipole and therefore local electric field builds up 4. a dipole layer can form.How the space-charge fluctuation build up? 1.

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P-N-P-N Diode : It is also called semiconductor controlled rectifier 1. It is a four layer device that effectively blocks current through two terminals until it is turned on by a small signal at third terminal 2. This device have high impedance ‘off’ condition under forward bias until a switching signal is applied 3. So the device can be used to block or pass currents at predetermined levels. 21 . The signal required for switching can be varied externally. After switching the device exhibits low impedance ‘on’ condition 4.

Switching pulse 1v at j2 22 .

3. The centre junction j2 serves as the collector junction for both transistors 23 .Two Transistor Analogy In this analogy 1. The collector region of the n-p-n is in common with the base of the p-n-p 2. The base of the n-p-n serves as the collector of the p-n-p.

If α1=emitter to collector current transfer ratio for the p-n-p transistor α2=emitter to collector current transfer ratio for the n-p-n transistor iC1  1i  I C 01  i B 2 iC 2   2 i  I C 02  i B1 But iC 1  iC 2  i i ( 1   2 )  I C 01  I Co 2  i I C 01  I Co 2 i 1  ( 1   2 ) 24 .

• ‘i’ is small as long as the sum α1 + α2 is small compared to unity • As the sum approaches to unity the current should increase but not increase infinitely as predicted by the above equation • This is because the derivation is no longer valid when α1 + α2 is unity • Since both the junction are forward biased in forward conducting state both the transistors are become saturated after switching • So α1 + α2 will never reach upto unity 25 .

Amplification with BJTs If the effect of saturation current and recombination is neglected then iC=BiEp [B=base transport factor.e fraction of injected holes which make it across the base to the collector] i Ep The emitter injection efficiency   i En  i Ep Electron component Hole component The value of B and Ƴ to be very near to unity BiEp iC   B   iE iEn  iEp Current transfer ratio 26 . i.

• At very low current (the forward blocking state) is Ƴ usually dominated by recombination within the transition region of the emitter junction and value is less • As the current is increased .• The emitter –to-collector current transfer ratio α is the product of emitter injection efficiency Ƴ and the base transport factor B. injection across the junction begins to dominate over recombination and Ƴ increases • To increase B there are several mechanisms like saturation of recombination centers as the excess carrier concentration becomes large • To keep α1 + α2 less than unity there is no separate mechanism in forward blocking state but current is low by the dominance of recombination within the transition 27 region of j1 and j3 Variation of α with injection .

Forward –Blocking State : Current through this junction is equal to the thermally generated Reverse saturation current of j2 28 .

This type of voltage triggering results in a breakdown. • The breakdown mechanism commonly occurs by the combination of base-width narrowing and avalanche multiplication Avalanche Multiplication • We have already seen that breakdown occurs in the collector junction of a transistor with iB=0 when Mα=1.Mα)] • In this case Mpα1+Mnα2=1 [Mp is the hole multiplication factor and Mn is the electron multiplication factor] 29 .Triggering Mechanism: • The most common method of triggering is to apply a peak bias voltage Vp. [IC=MICO/(1 .

As the switching proceeds. So the triggering will occur. As the base width decreases IC increases so the value of α increases. the increased numbers of carriers in n1 and p2 drive the device to the forward conducting state.• • • • • • Base Width Narrowing As the bias v increases in the forward-blocking state. the depletion region about j2 spreads and the neutral regions on the either side (n1 and p2) becomes thinner. Proper punch-through is not necessary because as α1and α2 increases total multiplication effect will also increases Once the breakdown begins . the reverse bias is lost and breakdown mechanism is no longer present Therefore base narrowing and avalanche multiplication serve only to start the switching process 30 .

This will constitute a current called displacement current. If dv/dt is large. electrons are removed from the n1 side to the p1 side and the hole removed from the p2 side to the n2 side. the rate of charge removal from each side of j2 cause the current to increase significantly • In terms of the junction capacitance (Cj2) of the reverse biased junction.• If the forward-bias voltage is applied rapidly to the device then one mechanism will occur named as dv/dt triggering • This mechanism arises because. the transient current is given by i (t )  dC j 2 v j 2 dt  C j2 dv j 2 dt  v j2 dC j 2 dt 31 where vj2 is the instantaneous voltage across j2 . as the depletion width of j2 increases.

• The increase in current due to a rapid rise in voltage can cause switching well below the steady state triggering voltage Vp • dv/dt rating is usually specified along with Vp for p-np-n diodes • Obviously dv/dt triggering can be a disadvantage in circuits subjected to unpredictable voltage transistor 32 .

Semiconductor Controlled Rectifier (With Gate Triggering) or Thyristor : This device is p-n-p-n diode except that a third lead (gate) is attached to one of the base regions. 33 .

Ƭt2 is the transit time required to inject electrons through j3 to p2 and Ƭt1 is the transit time required to pass the hole through j1 to n1. it is less than few micro sec . So Ƭt1 +Ƭt2 is the delay time required to establish the transistor 34 action across the entire p-n-p-n device.

• If the rate of hole extraction is sufficiently high to remove the transistor from saturation .Turning Off the SCR : • The turning off the transistor from conducting state to the blocking can be accomplished by reducing the current i through the device below a critical value (holding current) required to maintain α1+ α2 =1 • This condition can be achieved by applying a reverse gate voltage that will extract holes from p2 base. then the device turns off. 35 .

4. Turn off capability can be utilized only over a limited range for a given device.Difficulties of Turning –off in SCR 1. 2. Additional bulky circuitry is needed to turn off. Lateral flow of current from p2 to gate The bias at the emitter will also vary with position when lateral current flows causing nonuniform biasing of j3 3. 36 .

Light dimmer (Light intensity varies continuously from full to dark) 2. Motors and Heaters 37 .Uses of Thyristor or SCR : 1.

Insulated-gate transistor (IGT) . Gain-enhanced MOSFET (GEMFET). Insulated Gate Rectifier (IGR). and Bipolar FET (BiFET) 38 .Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor: This also a SCR but can easily turned off from conducting to the blocking state by action of the gate Invented by Baliga in 1979 Other Names are : Conductivity modulated FET (COMFET).

Channel length Base region or Drain of the DMOS device. the channel length is determined not by the lithography rather by diffusion acceptors.e. 39 Such a structure is known as a double-diffused MOSFET (DMOS). 50µm thick and low doping concentration 1014 cm-3 Here the channel length is formed by diffusion of the acceptors implanted in the same region as the n+ cathode i. .

Activity of n.region : 1. 2. 4. As the thick ness of the region is large so it can support a large blocking voltage in the ‘off’ state. The increased conductivity allows the voltage drop cross the device to be minimal in the ‘on’ state 40 . Hence the alternative name (conductivity modulated FET (COMFET). In the ‘on’ state the conductivity of this region is modulated (increased) by the electrons injected from the n+ cathode and the holes injected from the p+ anode 3.

For positive anode-to-cathode bias VAK.d occurs at n-p+ junction 41 .Regions of Operations: 1. while for negative VAK avalanche b.d occurs at the n-p junction. When Gate voltage is zero : n type inversion is not formed in the p-type channel region and the n+ cathode is not shorted to the n.base the structure looks like conventional SCR. avalanche b.

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a. the n. When a gate bias is applied to the DMOS gate: For positive VAK . b.2. there is significant current flow but starts from a offset or cut-in voltage ~0.blocking region (the base). the structure looks like a DMOS in series with a p-i-n diode made up of the p+ substrate (the anode).7v as like a diode. For small VAK upto the offset voltage. The p-i-n device is forward biased so the current through the device is IAα exp(qVAK/2kT) 43 . which is essentially the intrinsic region and the n+ cathode.

and the pchannel as collector. p+ substrate (anode) as emitter. the n.base . Now the current through the device is IA=(1+βpnp)IMOS This is the preferred mode of operation 44 .c. d. When VAK is larger than the offset voltage the characteristics look like a MOSFET multiplied by a p-n-p bipolar junction transistor gain term.

the IGBT is gradually becoming the power device of choice. and because it can turn off more easily that SCR . it has low resistance and high current-handling capacity. 45 .• The IGBT clearly incorporates some of the best features of MOSFET and BJT. Like a BJT or an SCR • Because of these factors. On the other hand in the “on” state. Like a MOSFET it has high input impedance and low input capacitance.

Determine the drift time of the carriers and the operating frequency for this IMPATT structures 46 . 2. A typical n-type GaAs diode with an n-type doping concentration of 2x1014 cm-3 is subjected to an electric field of 3200 V/cm. If the threshold electric field value of the device is 2800 V/cm. and the device is operated at a frequency of 10GHz.• Prob: 1. A GaAs IMPATT diode has a drift length of 2µm and a carrier drift velocity of 2x107 cm/s. calculate the electron drift and the current density. its overall length is 10µm.