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PETE 203

DRILLING ENGINEERING

Chapter 5

Drilling Bits

Contents:
• Various bit types available (classification).

Criteria for selecting the best bit for a given
situation.


• • •

Standard methods for evaluating dull bite
Factors affecting bit wear and drilling speed. Different Rock Failure mechanisms Optimization of bit weight and rotary speed

Ideal Bit (Lowest Cost $/ft)
• High drilling rate • Long life

• Drill full-gauge, straight hole
• Moderate cost

Selecting Ideal Bit • Drilling Cost per foot • Drillability • Abrasiveness • Type of Reservoir • Cost of the Bit • Depth .

Improving Bit Performance • Stabilize the Bit • Maintain minimum mud weight. sand & solids • Maintain adequate bottom hole cleaning • Protect the seals .avoid pressure surges • Thoroughly inspect bit before re-running • Keep oil from the mud.g.000 lb/in of diameter and 40-60 RPM) . 6. and from the seals • Follow manufacturers recommendations (e.

Common Types of Drilling Bits .

Drag Bits: Fixed cutter blades Consist of fixed cutter blades that are integral with the body of the bit and rotate as a unit with the drill string (19th century). 2.with cones (1909) have two or more cones containing the cutting elements which rotate about the axis of the cone as the bit is rotated . Rolling Cutter Bits: Rock bits .Types of Bits 1.

Drag Bits • Design Features – Number & shape of cutting blades/stones – Size and location of the water courses – Metallurgy of the bit and cutting elements .

Drag Bits – Drilling is achieved by physically blowing cuttings from the bottom of the bore-hole .

which would leave junk in the bottom of the hole .Drag Bits Advantages – No rolling parts which require strong clean bearing surfaces – Because it is made from one solid piece of steel there is less chance of bit breakage.

Fishtail Drag Bit .

Drag Bits • Cutter may be made from: – – – Steel Tungsten carbide Natural diamonds – Polycrystalline diamonds (PDC) .

Drag Bits • Types of Drag Bits – Steel cutter bits (Fishtail Type) – Diamond bits – Polycrystalline diamond bits .

Steel Cutter Bits • Best for – Soft formations – Uniform formations – unconsolidated formations • Now. replaced by other types in all area .

When Using Natural Diamond Bit? • Penetration rate of rock bit < 10 ft/hr • Hole diameter < 6 inches • When it is important to keep the bit and pipe in the hole • When bad weather precludes making trips • When starting a side-tracked hole • When coring • When a lower cost/ft would result .

Diamond Bits – Best for hard non-brittle formations – The face or crown of the bit consists of many diamonds set in a tungsten carbide matrix – Fluid courses are provided in the matrix to direct the flow of drilling fluid over the face of the bit. .

high wt.) – Short taper (easier to clean) – Non taper (directional drilling) .Diamond Bits • Shape of crown profit: – Step type – Long taper (straight hole.

0 carrot .07-0.Diamond Bits • Size and number of diamonds.75-2. depend on the hardness of the formation – Hard formations: • Many small stones • 0.125 carrot – Soft formations: • Few large stones • 0.

Diamond Bits • Pressure drop across the face of the bit • Pump pressure measured with the bit off bottom-pump pressure with the bit drilling = 500 : 1000 psi • Manufacturer usually provide estimate of approximate circulating rate required establishing the needed pressure drop across the bit. .

Top View of Diamond Bit .

Side View of Diamond Bit .

Natural Diamond Bits PDC Bits .

Natural Diamond bit junk slot cuttings radial flow high Dp across face .

Soft Formation Diamond bit  Larger diamonds  Fewer diamonds  Pointed nose .

Hard Formation Diamond bit  Smaller diamonds  More diamonds  Flatter nose .

thick that is bonded to a cemented tungsten carbide substrate in a high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) process .PolyCrystalline Diamond (PCD) Bits • Since mid 1970’s a PDC Bits has been made possible by the introduction of a sintered polycrystalline diamond drill blanks. as a bit cutter element • The drill blanks consist of a layer of a synthetic polycrystalline diamond about 1/64 in.

PDC bits Courtesy Smith Bits .

non-abrasion formations (not gummy) .PolyCrystalline Diamond (PCD) Bits • It contains many small diamond crystals bonded together • The PCD is bonded either to a tungsten carbide bit-body matrix or to a tungsten carbide stud that is mounted in a steel bit body • They perform best in soft. firm. and medium-hard.

shape.PolyCrystalline Diamond (PCD) Bits • Good results are obtained in carbonates or evaporates that are not broken up with hard shale stringers. side rake and exposure . siltstone. shale Design of crown profile is important. number of cutters and angle of attack back rake. • • Also good in a sandstone. double-cone and flat profile • Size.

5 times faster than those 2 years earlier – Work better in oil based muds.PolyCrystalline Diamond (PCD) Bits • Advantages: – Increase penetration rates in oil & gas wells – Reduce drilling time and costs – Cost 5-15 times more than roller cone bits – 1. however. these areas are strictly regulated .

000 a piece. PDC bits cost five to 15 times more than roller cone bits .PDC Bits At about $10.000-150.

.) • A TCI bit may cost several times as much as a milled tooth bit.Relative Costs of Bits $/Bit Diamond Bits WC Insert Milled Bits Tooth Bits • Diamond bits typically cost several times as much as tricone bits with tungsten carbide inserts (same bit diam.

Broken Cutter More than 1/3 of cutting element is broken to the substrate .Grading of Worn PDC Bits CT .Chipped Cutter Less than 1/3 of cutting element is gone BT .

Lost Cutter Bit is missing one or more cutters LN .Grading of Worn PDC Bits – cont’d LT .Lost Nozzle Bit is missing one or more nozzles .

0 6. 10 5/8. 8 5/8. 8 3/8 6. 12 1/4 10.500 9 7/8.) 5.656 8 5/8.625 11.050 7 7/8. 6 3/4 6. 9 1/2 8.Commonly Used Bit Sizes For Running API Casing Casing Size (OD in.7 . 8 1/2 7. 8 3/8. 11 9.563 6 1/2. 26 .750 15 14. 8 3/4. 6 1/8. 8 3/4 7.390 8 1/2.) 4 1/2 5 5 1/2 6 6 5/8 7 7 5/8 8 5/8 9 5/8 10 3/4 13 3/8 16 20 Coupling Size Common Bit (OD in.625 12 1/4.) Sizes Used (in. 6 1/4 5. 14 3/4 11.625 7 7/8.Table 7.375 17 1/2 17 20 21 24.