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• Definition • Rendering • Types of image • Raster images • Vector images

• Monitor displays the picture as a
rectangular array of pixels , usually small dots, square which merged optically at a suitable distance to produce impression of continues tones.

Low level operation on pixel • Set the pixel are usually performed by graphics library which communicates with the display hardware. .

Rendering • Process of regenerating a pattern of pixel from a model is called rendering. • Implicit data:sequence of call to the graphic library • Explicit data:Data structure holds the description .

Types of image • Bitmap images • Vector images .

image is model by array of • pixels values. • • • . Logical pixels:scale has to apply logically before display.Bit map images • In bit map image. Necessary to distinguish between the logical pixel and physical pixels physical pixels:such pixel are going to display on the screen like dots.

Bit map images • Resolution:how finally device approximate the continuous image using the finite pixels. . • Pixel dimension:• Resolution is specified by giving the size of the frame measure in pixels. Like in videos.

• it is closely related with the sampling .Resolution • How finely a device can approximate the continuous image using pixel.

the resolution is specified by giving the size of the frame.Physical Dimension • In video. • PAL frame:.768 x 576 • NTSC:640x480 .

.Pixel Dimension • For vidoe it is specify that image resolution is in the form of the pixel dimension. the same grid is display the picture on the monitor.

Pixel Dimension • If you know the pixel then you become able to know dot per inches on the device. • How easy see each pixel individually. .

Physical Dimension • Physical dimension can be found by the following formula. Pixel dimension= Pixel Dimension/Device Resolution .

Pixel per inch • Image display on pixel storage. • First we determine the dot per inches. . • So secondly. storage of dot per inches on monitor using pixel by mean of pixel per inch.

Interpolation • If image resolution is lower than that of device resolution on which it is displayed then it is scaled up and know as interpolation. .

pixel must be discarded when image is scaled down for it’s natural display at it’s natural size known as down sampling.Down Sampling • If image resolution is higher than that of output device. .

.Over sampling • The technique of sampling image at high resolution then that at which it is ultimately displayed.

e filters.Image manipulation • How one can judge that we can change certain pixel therefore it’s effect goes on appearance of whole image • Some operations. we will do. • I. Mask .

• Difficult and impossible to make a natural image. .Reason • Correct the deficiency in an image cause by the poor camera.

consumer selected manipulation such as red eye removal caused by reflection of the object retrieval.Image manipulation • In manipulation. commons task has been performed. .

like they must be down sampled. Like image displayed on high resolution and displayed. .Image manipulation • Operation performed over the image by typically multimedia is changing of the image resolution or the size .

.Image manipulation • Bit map image is array of pixel not a separate object like vector graphics.

Image manipulation • Bitmap image is array of pixel not • Selection • Masking • Alpha channel separate object. • Image manipulation can be done by .

Selection • By using the selection. . they are not drawing tool. you can define the are within image .

the standard drawing tools are used. .use to draw the polyline rather shapes.Selection • To accommodate irregular shape .used to draw the free handed curve shapes. • Polygon lasso tool:. • Lasso tool:.

Selection • Magic Wend:. • Tolerance:.The amount by which color may differ but still considered sufficiently similar to include in selection. • Magic used to performed section on the basis of color. .It drag the area to be selected.

.Mask • The area which is not selected but protect from any change.

.Difference • Difference between mask and selection is that mask can not be long term as other selection made it would be finished. • Selection is long term.

mask become gray scale image. .Alpha channel • By using more than one bit. gray scale of mask is called Alpha channel.

Pixel point processing. • W is white • F(p)=W-p . • If p is a pixel value. • Pixel point consists of the mapping function.

.Pixel point processing.






• Built with the help of formula. . scaleable and resolution independent.Vector images • Are digital images whose representation is compact.


Vector image coordinate and vectors • coordinate of pixel in an image must be integer value and horizontal for x axis and vertical for y axis. . • Coordinate system can be transfer to any system.