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Nervous System- Divisions

• Central Nervous System (CNS) - brain and spinal cord • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) nerves extending to extremities – Autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulates body’s automatic or involuntary functions

Nervous System: Cells • Neurons: Structure – Cell Body – Dendrites – Axon • myelin • Schwann cells • myelinated fibers • nodes of ranvier - .

connective tissue cells of the CNS – Astrocytes .star shape (attach to blood vessels) – Microglia .Nervous System: Cells • Neurons .produce myelin sheath .consume microbes – Oligodendroglia .3 Types – Sensory neurons – Motor neurons – Interneurons • Glia .

Nervous System: Tissue Disorders • Multiple sclerosis: myelin disorder • Tumors: neuroma • Multiple neurofibromatosis: inherited fibrous neuromas .

myelinated axons – Gray matter .bundle of peripheral axons – Tract .Nervous System: Nerves • Nerve .unmyelinated axons • Nerve coverings .surrounds group of fibers – Epineurium.bundle of central axons – White matter .surrounds entire nerve .fibrous connective tissue – Endoneurium.surrounds single fiber – Perineurium.

space between axon and dendrite • Reflex .response to impulse over a reflex arc • See pg. • Receptors .beginning of dendrites • Ganglion .Nerve impulses traveling to and from the brain.Nervous System: Reflex Arcs • Reflex Arc .nerve cell bodies in PNS • Synapse . 205 .

fast impulse on myelinated plasma membrane .Nervous System: Nerve Impulses • wave of electrical disturbance that travels along the surface of a neuron’s plasma membrane • impulse created by an imbalance of sodium ions on the inside and outside of the plasma membrane • saltatory conduction .

dopamine. catecholamines.Nervous System: Synapse • Synapse. serotonin. norepinephrine. 208) • acetylcholine. enkephalins . endorphins.chemical compounds released from axon terminals into a synaptic cleft (pg.impulse passed from one neuron to the next • Neurotransmitters .

Nervous System: Parkinson’s Disease • chronic nervous disorder resulting from a deficiency of dopamine .

Central Nervous System • Divisions of the Brain: – Brain Stem • Medulla Oblongata • Pons • Midbrain – Cerebellum – Diencephalon • Hypothalamus • Thalamus – Cerebrum .

thalamus.enlarged upper section of the spinal cord • pons .rests between the pons.above medulla oblongata • midbrain.CNS: Brain Stem • medulla oblongata . and cerebellum • all three contain well mixed white and gray matter • function: two-way conduction paths .

controls hormone secretion. wakefulness. and gray matter • Functions: Center for controlling ANS. pituitary stalk. and pleasure .consists mainly of the posterior pituitary gland.CNS: Diencephalon • lies between the brain stem and cerebrum • Hypothalamus . and controls appetite.

. • Thalamus: dumb-bell shaped mass in each cerebral hemisphere • Relays sensory impulses to cerebral cortex • Produces the emotions of pleasantness and unpleasantness associated with sensations ..CNS: Diencephalon cont.

CNS: Cerebellum • • • • Lies below occipital lobe Outer layer .Produce smooth coordinated movements • Maintain equilibrium • Sustain normal postures .gray matter Inside .White matter Functions .

mental processes of all types (sensations. memory.gray matter (cerebral cortex) Interior of brain . and voluntary control of movements) .white matter (tracts) two lobes Functions . consciousness.CNS: Cerebrum • • • • • Largest part of brain Outer layer .

Peripheral Nervous System • Cranial Nerves (12 Pair) • Spinal nerves • Peripheral nerve disorders – Neuritis – Trigeminal neuralgia – Bell’s palsy – Shingles .

Parasympathetic • Autonomic Neurotransmitters • Disorders of ANS – Stress induced disease – Neuroblastoma .Autonomic Nervous System • Regulates the body’s automatic or involuntary movements (main job is to restore homeostasis) • Sympathetic Vs.