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SONNET THOMAS 9567323598

Principles of communication
 Truthfulness and fairness
 Freedom of expression  Tolerance to dissenting views  Respect to others

 Full disclosure of information
 Avoid distortion  Avoid insulting language  Avoid rumours  Respect privacy  Don’t entertain unethical communication

Types of communication
 Downward: orders, instructions, policy statements,

notices, circulars etc.  Upward: to send information, suggestion, complaints, grievances etc.  Horizontal or lateral: at the same level  Diagonal or cross-wise: cuts across different levels and functions. The supervisor in the finance dept. communicates directly with a regional marketing manager who is not only in a different department, but also at a higher level in the organisation

Methods and media of communication
 Verbal
 Oral  Written  Nonverbal  Sign language
 Visual signs
 Audio signs

 Body language

Basic Communication Structure Nonverbal Less Structured Harder to Classify Intent Nonverbal More Spontaneous Less Control Verbal Verbal More Structured Easier to Study Conscious Purpose More Control .

you sometimes do so unconsciously. Without your consent.  Verbal communication consists of words arranged in meaningful patterns: that is according to the rules of grammar by putting the various parts of speech in the proper sequence.  it’s less structured. . But when you communicate nonverbally. Nonverbal communication differs from verbal communication in fundamental ways.  Nonverbal also differs from verbal communication in terms of intent and spontaneity. You generally plan your words. so it's more difficult to study. your emotions are often written all over your face.

Usage of Business Communication Channels Writing 9% Receiving Sending Speaking 30% Listening 45% Reading 16% Chapter 1 7 .

if the audience is large and geographically dispersed. if a permanent record is needed for future reference. You have far less opportunity to revise your spoken words than to revise your written words. . people would rather talk to each other than write to each other. oral communication has drawbacks. and if immediate interaction with the audience is either unimportant or undesirable. keyboarding.  Nonetheless. rewriting. duplicating. Given a choice. and oral communication provides the opportunity for feedback.  At times written forms are more appropriate and effective: if the information you are conveying is very complex.  Talking takes less time and needs no composing. or distributing.

As a member of an organization. Many outsiders may form their impression of your organization on the basis of the subtle clues you transmit through your tone of voice. and general appearance.  Top managers rely heavily on informal contacts with outsiders to gather information that might be useful to their companies. you are an important informal conduit for communicating with the outside world. facial expression. Informal contacts with outsiders are important for learning about customer needs. either by networking with fellow executives or talking with customers and frontline employees. .

Verbal communication.oral  Verbal means connected with words  Speech comes before writing  Spoken communication or the communication     involving speech is oral C It is a spontaneous activity Provides immediate feedback Time-saving and economical Gives an opportunity to correct any mistakes .

arrange in a logical order and then write out very carefully Letters and reports.written  Written communication is creative activity that     requires a lot of imagination and effort to arrive at the final write up Is based on conscious effort Is not spontaneous as oral C Collect all the necessary information.Verbal communication. reflect the image of the organisaiton . nicely produced.

Oral and written communicationsa comparison Point of comparison Oral communication Written communication Nature Speed Flexibility Record Information with personal touch Fast High No record Formal without personal touch Slow Low Permanent record Cost Gestures Feedback Suitability Economical (low) Can be used High cost (costly) Can’t be used Immediate Delayed For short and simple For lengthy messages messages .

gestures.Nonverbal communication  Actions.  Transmits most info in face-to-face meetings  Influences meaning of verbal and written symbols  Less rule bound than verbal communication  Important part of emotional labour . etc. facial expressions.

opinions or emotions with other people  Done through speech.Meaning and role of communication  A social activity  The process by which we exchange meanings. facts. attitudes or emotions get conveyed from persons or groups . writing. ideas. exchange of a common set of symbols etc. ideas.  Critical to the success of any organisation  Information.

Functions of communication  Information sharing  Feedback to and from employees  Influence people  Problem solving  Assists in decision making  Facilitating change  Group building  Conveying the right message  Coordination of efforts  contd… .

 Good industrial relations  Development of managerial skills  Ensuring effectiveness of policies  Motivating people  Performance feedback  Job instruction  Controlling people  Spreading rumours/ grapevine  Emotive function .

 Growing importance of human relations  Corporate image and public relations  Technological advancements  Growth in the size of organisations  Growth of trade unions  Motivation. morale and fostering positive attitude  Advances in behavioural sciences .

morale and fostering positive attitude  Advances in behavioural sciences .Importance of Communication  Growing importance of human relations  Corporate image and public relations  Technological advancements  Growth in the size of organisations  Growth of trade unions  Motivation.

Communication models  Who  Says what  In what channel  To whom  With what effect  When .

Communication process  One-way communication process  Two-way communication process .

Communication Process Model Sender Form message Encode message Transmit Message Receiver Receive encoded message Decode message Noise Decode feedback Receive feedback Encode feedback Form feedback Transmit Feedback .

Channels are of two types  Formal channel  Informal channel .

Internal Communication Official Structure The Grapevine Formal Chain of Command Informal Networking Up. Down. Across Formal Power Lines Unofficial Lines of Power .

 The official structure (formal communication network) is typically shown as an organization chart that summarizes the lines of authority. either laterally or diagonally. Communication also flows from one department to another. and identify and react quickly to potential problems. Internal communication refers to the exchange of information and ideas within an organization. Internal communication helps employees do their jobs.  Horizontal flow. each line represents a formal channel for the transmission of official messages. To solve problems and make intelligent decisions. develop a clear sense of the organization’s mission. .  Upward flow. Organizational decisions are usually made at the top and then flow down to the people who will carry them out. managers must learn what’s going on in the organization.  Downward flow. each box represents a link in the chain of command. Information can flow in three directions.

 Most deal with personal matters. Savvy managers tap into the grapevine. The grapevine (informal communication network) supplements official channels. possibly because it threatens their power to control the flow of information. People have casual conversations at work. using it to spread and receive informal messages. . but about 80 percent of the information on the grapevine pertains to business.  Some executives are wary of the grapevine.

External Communication Formal Contacts Informal Contacts Marketing Employees Public Relations Managers .

massive product failure. External communication carries information into and out of      the organization. Messages such as statements to the press. memos. Good communication is the first step in creating a favorable impression. The public relations team also helps management plan for and respond to crises—which can range from environmental accidents or sabotage situations to strikes. and websites convey an important message about the quality of your organization. Carefully constructed letters. . reports. price increase announcements. or even an abrupt change in management. Such documents are often drafted by a marketing or public relations team—a group of individuals whose sole job is creating and managing the flow of formal messages to outsiders. and legal action updates require special care because of their delicate nature. major litigation. oral presentations. advertisements. letters to investors.

publicity material . advertising. letters. instructions. records.Formal channel of communication  Formal: normally controlled by managers or people occupying similar positions in an organisation  Carefully thought out and well designed  Main line of the organisation’s operational communication  Eg: reports. sales presentations. orders.

Advantages of formal communication  Effective  Cover more distances.can reach out to all branches spread across the world  Consolidates the organisation and satisfies the people in managerial position .

Limitations  Hindrance to free flow of information  Consumes more time and money  Red-tapism and delay tactics  Adversely affects the relationship between executives and subordinates .

and hence the name .Informal communication or grapevine  A secondary network of information  Source lies in man’s compulsive instinct to     communicate or talk out whatever he feels and thinks with his fellow beings Rumours spread fast in any organisation Unofficial channel of communication created and controlled by people themselves Not set of definite rules Spreads fast like the grapevine.

inadequacy  Lack of self confidence.Why grapevine is active?  The urge to share ideas with like-minded companions  Feeling of uncertainty. sense of direction  Formation of favoured group by the manager giving other employees a feeling of insecurity or isolation .

Grapevine chains  Single strand chain: A to B. B to C and so on  Gossip chain: tells everyone  Probability chain: at random  Cluster chain: A tells something to a few selected individuals and then some of these individuals inform a few other selected individuals .

Merits of grapevine  Speedy transmission  Feedback value  Support to other channels  Psychological satisfaction .

Communication Barriers  Perception and language •Physiological barriers •Psychological barriers  Restrictive environments •Physical barriers  Distractions •Cultural barriers •Semantictactics  Deceptive barriers •Filtering  Information overload •Information overload .

Selective perception: People choose the details that seem important to them. Physical distractions: bad connections. express couriers. Information overload caused by the sheer number of messages can be distracting. regular mail and cell phones. Interference in the communication process is called noise which      can be caused by a variety of communication barriers. voice mail. or illegible photocopy can block an otherwise effective message. websites. People constantly receive messages via e-mail. fax machines. poor sound systems. A restrictive environment: a directive and authoritarian leadership style. Language: There is a limit to how completely any two people share the same meaning for a word. . giving inaccurate statistics etc. can block the flow of information. making it hard to discriminate between useful and useless information. Deceptive communicators :exaggeration of benefits.

causing serious communication problems  People may become selective in their response .Information overload  A barrier to communication  Happens when people are loaded with lots of information  Delays processing or responding to information/message  Delay may become a habit.

Information Overload Episodes of information overload Employee’s information processing capacity Information Load Time .

Overload: Problem Solved Problem: Overload (too many messages reaching a person at once) Message A Message B Message C Person Solutions: Use gatekeepers to control the number of incoming messages received Message A Message B Message C Gatekeeper Message C Person Use queuing to present messages in order Message A Message B Message C Person .

Overcoming Barriers Audience-Centered Approach Open Communication Ethical Communication Efficient Messages .

(3) committing to ethical communication. (1) adopting an audience-centered approach. Following these guidelines will help you. efficient messages. . they learn from them.Overcome barriers and improve your communication  Effective communicators work hard at perfecting the      messages they deliver. and (4) creating lean. When they make mistakes. (2) fostering an open communication climate.

Biases Education Age Status Style Audience-Centered Approach .

making every effort to get your message across in a way that is meaningful to them. education. and style of your audience to create an effective message. if that’s impossible. . age. When you address strangers.  By writing and speaking from your audience’s point of view. try to project yourself into their position by using your common sense and imagination. try to find out more about them.  Learn as much as possible about the biases. status. you can to help them understand and accept your message. Adopting an audience-centered approach means focusing on and caring about your audience.

Communication Climate Overall Structure Flat Corporate Culture More Open Level of Feedback High Tall Less Open Low .

Successful companies encourage employee contributions by making sure that communication flows freely down. goal setting. up. traditions. and habits that give a company its atmosphere or personality. and across the organization chart. Having a flat structure (fewer levels) and a wide span of control (more people reporting to each supervisor) is less likely to introduce distortion than having a tall structure and a narrow span of control. Enables managers to share information with colleagues and include employees in decision making. An organization’s communication climate is a reflection     of its corporate culture: the mixture of values. Giving your audience a chance to provide feedback is crucial to maintaining an open communication climate. . and problem solving.

Strategies for improving communication effectiveness (A)  Clarity of purpose: what exactly we wish to communicate?     Plan carefully. Shared activity: effective C. request a reply to a letter. encourage the receiver to give his reactions to the message/information .avoid unnecessary technical jargon Focus the needs of the receiver: will make him more receptive to your message Use feedback: problems in C arise due to misunderstandings and inaccuracies. Ask questions.responsibility of all in the orgnall are working towards a common goal Common set of symbols: familiar to the sender and receiver.

esp. Politeness encourages participative communication involving people at all levels Eliminate noise: anything going wrong with the equipment or any disturbance in the transmission line Clarify assumptions: the sender of the message must first clarity his assumptions and then go ahead with proper encoding of the message . We often communicate with our negative feelings and emotions– leading to all sorts of misunderstandings owing to emotion-loaded encoding of the message or misinterpretation of the incoming message Politeness: “The tone makes the music”.exercise authority with grace. Active listening: joint responsibility of the sender and the     receiver Controlling emotions: a successful communicator must learn/ train himself to exercise restraint on his emotions. anger.

be concise and crisp in communication Proper use of body language: in oral C. Receiver shouldn’t be left in doubt Conciseness: KISS. graceful movements of hands and feet.good eye contact.proper feedback may not come. furnishing all necessary facts and figures. warm handshake. Incomplete ones annoy the receiver. holding head straight on shoulders with confidence . Avoid all ambiguity during communication Socio-psychological aspect: both sender and receiver should make conscious efforts to understand each other’s cultural and socio-psychological background Completeness: send a complete message. Avoiding connotation and ambiguities: semantic problems     can be solved by using simple language.Keep It Short and Simple.

Business Communication. Schatzman. K. Bhatia. Excel Books . Sinha. Business Communication. Ane Books  M. Galgotia Publishing Company  Bovee. Vandana Khetarpal. Business Communication Today. Pearson Education  R. K. Business Communication. Thill.Thank you  References:  K. C. Sehgal.