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Very few. continuous-path systems utilize open-loop control. There are two ways to activate the servo drives: the open-loop system and the closed-loop system. If the system performance is affected by load. The cumulative number of electrical pulses determines the distance each servo drive will move.CNC systems require motor drives to control both the position and the velocity of the machineaxes. if any. These instructions are then converted to electrical pulses (signals) by the controller and sent to the servo amplifier to energize the servo motors. . The primary drawback of the open-loop system is that there is no feedback system to check whether the program position and velocity has been achieved. Each axis must be driven separately and follow the command signal generated by the NC control. Open Loop . humidity.Programmed instructions are fed into the controllerthrough an input device. the open-loop system is generally used in point-to-point systems where the accuracy requirements are not critical. For these reasons. temperature. and the pulse frequency determines the velocity. or lubrication then the actual output could deviate from the desired output.

0001 of an inch. Digital systems monitor output variations by means of electrical pulses Closed-loop systems are very powerful and accurate because they are capable of monitoring operating conditions through feedback subsystems and automatically compensating for any variations in real-time. This. The analog systems measure the variation of physical variables such as position and velocity in terms of voltage levels. A closed/open comparison is shown below . require more control devices and circuitry in order for them to implement both position and velocity control. The feedback system could be either analog or digital. Most modern closed-loop CNC systems are able to provide very close resolution of 0. makes them more complex and more expensive than the open-loop system.Closed Loop . Closed-looped systems would.The closed-loop system has a feedback subsystem to monitor the actual output and correct any discrepancy from theprogrammed input. obviously. naturally.

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. Disadvantages: Accuracy and Reliability: since these systems do not have a feedback mechanism.Open Loop System: Advantages: Simplicity and stability: they are simpler in their layout and hence are economical and stable too due to their simplicity. Construction: Since these are having a simple layout so are easier to construct. so they are very inaccurate in terms of result output and hence they are unreliable too. they are unable to remove the disturbances occurring from external sources. Due to the absence of a feedback mechanism.

They are equally accurate and are not disturbed in the presence of non-linearities. it may create oscillatory response of the system and it also reduces the overall gain of the system. Since it consists of feedback loop. Noise reduction ability: Since they are composed of a feedback mechanism. so they clear out the errors between input and output signals. Disadvantages: Construction: They are relatively more complex in construction and hence it adds up to the cost making it costlier than open loop system.Closed Loop System: Advantages: Accuracy: They are more accurate than open loop system due to their complex construction. Stability: It is less stable than open loop system but this disadvantage can be striked off since we can make the sensitivity of the system very small so as to make the system as stable as possible. and hence remain unaffected to the external noise sources. .

Figure 1.1: Open-loop control of a room heating system .

3: Closed-loop control of a room heating system .Figure 1.