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Project Planning (IV


Lec 18 VU June 14

2 30 pm Final rechkd 22 aug

Contents of Lec 18
• Proj Policy,Procedures & Stnadrad • Syst Integration (perf, Cost & Effectiveness)‫‏‬ • Value Analysis • Sorting Out Project • Hierachical Planning Sys

• Bite off more than you can chew, then chew it. Plan more than you can do, then do it.

• A Goal without a Plan is just a wish.
Antoine de Saint-Exupery (1900 - 1944)‫‏‬

1912)‫‏‬ . Aim high in Hope & Work. Burnham (1846 .• Make no little plans. they have no magic to stir men's blood. Make Big Plans. Daniel H.

Eisenhower (1890 .• In preparing for battle. Dwight D. but Planning is indispensable.1969)‫‏‬ . I have always found that plans are useless.

Patton (1885 . George S.• A good Plan.1945)‫‏‬ . is better than a Perfect Plan next week. violently executed now.

2005)‫‏‬ . Peter Drucker (1909 .• Plans are only Good Intentions unless they immediately degenerate into hard work.

& when. in order to fulfill one's assigned responsibility. by whom. . what Needs to be done.Project Planning • Planning is determining.

Planning is a required Management Function to facilitate comprehension of complex problems involving interacting factors. .

Planning in a Project Environment – • Establishing : Predetermined course of action within a Forecasted Environment.Planning • Function of selling Enterprise Objectives & Establishing: A)Policies B)Procedures C)Programs nec for achieving them. Project Required set and Major Milestones: Line managers hope -they can meet them. .

& Executing Plans. Integrating. • Integration of Plan Activities is Necessary Because each Functional Unit – – Divides its Own Planning Document With Little Regard for Other Functional Units. • All Projects are: – Relatively Short Duration – Often Prioritized Control of Resources – Require Formal. .• Most important Responsibilities of a Project Manager – Planning. Detailed Planning.

• • • Project Manager -Key to successful “Project‫‏‬Planning. Objectives of Project Planning: To Completely Define all work required through: “Documented‫‏‬Project‫‏‬Plan” Readily identifiable to Proj Participant. Project Planning must be: – – – Flexible -handle unique activities.Conception Through Execution.Project Manager be involved from: – Project. • • • Project Planning . Capable of accepting Multifunctional Inputs. .Iterative process Performed through-out Life of Project. Disciplined through Reviews & Controls.” Desirable.

Basic Reasons for Project Planning to: • • • • Eliminate or reduce uncertainty. . Basis for monitoring & controlling (M & C ) work. Better understanding of objectives. Improve efficiency of Operations.

Project Plan Elements Nine Elements Constitute “Project Plan” basis for: A) More detailed Planning of Budgets. d) General management of Project. . it is disseminated to all interested parties. •Once this Basic Plan is developed & approved. b) Schedules. c) Work plan.

• Policy: General guideline for decision making & individual actions. – Tactical 1-5 years.Planning clearly definable. Most Project. . If Strategic or Linear Planning is Necessary Future Economic outlook Varies from year to year. Tactical. • Procedure: Detailed method for carrying out a Policy. • Standard: Level of individual/group Performance defined as “Adequate‫‏‬or‫‏‬Acceptable”. can be Strategic: • If spin-offs or follow-up work is promising. • Planning –Categories: Strategic. or Operational. – Strategic/Planning 5 years or more. (geo-political & Socio Economic Imperative to RePlanning -Regular intervals. • If Project Planning Operational. – Operational 6 months to 1 Year.Operational.

& Standards.• Policies. • Policies: Predetermined general courses/guides based on five Principles: a) Subordinate Policies supplementary to Superior projects. within Broad Limits Set by Top Management. vary from Project to Project due to Uniqueness. . Procedures. b) Based on Known Principles in Operative Areas. c) Policies should be: – Definable – Understandable – In writing d) Flexible & Stable. • Each Project Manager Can Establish Project Policies.

For instance: Signing off of Manufacturing Plans may require different signatures on two selected Projects even though same end-item is produced. . • Procedures: Drastically different from Project to Project even if same activity is performed.• Project Policies to Conform Organizational Policies. Similar in Nature from Project to Project.

Conservative Approach-Forego opportunities: a) for enhanced Project capabilities. .Risky approach of System Integration. b) Integrating project into customer’s system.System Integration/engineering includes any “Technical specialist in science/art of Project. b) Advantageous project economies. Two Approaches in System Integration: 1. Plays major role in success/failure of any project. Performing Role of “Integrating Technological Discipline” to achieve: a) Customer’s objectives.Delay project. 2.

System Performance Characteristicssubject to over/under –design. -highly interrelated. . •It Includes: •System design •Reliability •Quality •Maintainability •Repair ability -Not separate. independent elements of system.Major Objectives of System Integration 1.Performance: is what system does.

• Desgin “within‫‏‬design‫‏‬parameters‫‏‬ of‫‏‬client”. • Essthetic Qualities Specified. through Required Appearance of System Must be acceptable to clients. • May give client more than specs already Designed to some capability • Better if client get design System – Faster & Less expensive than Specs. .

Guidelines: Design components to “Optimize system Performance”. • • • • Accomplished through . Requires no component “Performance .Effectiveness • Objective is to Design Individual components of system to achieve “Desired‫‏‬Performance‫‏‬in‫‏‬optimal‫‏‬ manner”. Every component Requirement traceable to one/more system requirements. not “Performance of Subsystems”.

. Value Engineering Examines: a) These Cost Trade Offs (T/O). . Used in Projects for estimation of relevant cost Trade off. Value Engineering : Simply consistent & thorough Use of Cost/Effectiveness Analysis.Cost: In System Integration cost to design parameter Can be Accumulated in several areas.‫‏‬ b) Is an important aspect of System Integration.leaving “Performance & effectiveness” otherwise unchanged. Added Design Cost: a) Decrease component costs. b) Yield Decreased Production Costs (P/C) c) Production Cost Trade Off (T/O) against u/cost for materials.

in two situations: 1)If Problems occur later on.” Avoid Locking Project_ Into “Rigid Solution” with “Less flexibility or Adaptability” .Changes in Environment Require Changes in Project Performance/effectiveness. 2).Systems Integration A Good Design will take all Trade offs in “Initial‫‏‬Stage‫‏‬of‫‏‬Technical‫‏‬Approach. Not unusual for clients to violate any or all of these seemingly logical dicta. .

•Need to know exactly: a) What is to be done b) by Whom c) When •All activities required to complete project must be precisely: .Sorting Out Project •We move into consideration of details of Projects.coordinated.Delineated & . •Necessary resources must be availed: – – – – when & where needed correct amounts Some activities sequentially Some simultaneously .

• In large projects on time & within cost: Great many things to happen When & how they supposed to happen. . • We Propose conceptually simple method‫‏‬to‫‏‬assist‫‏‬in‫“‏‬sorting‫‏‬out”‫‏&‏‬ planning all this detail.

if number of Major Activities significantly are greater than 20. .20. – – – – Reasonable number is 2. 2. Noting sacred about limits.Prepare network from this information – Difficult.To accomplish any project several Major activities (MA) are completed 1-List Major Activities in general order normally occur. Break it into 2-20 subtasks. Comfortably “Sorted/scheduled”-given Level of “Task aggregation”.

” . •Individual chapters are divided . •Book –chapters: same level of Generality.Finer Detail. •Sub division of chapter .•All items roughly same Level of “Task‫‏‬ Generality”. •Difficult‫‏‬to‫“‏‬Overstate‫‏‬Significance”‫‏‬of‫‏‏‬ “Simple‫‏‬Dictum”.divided into “Finer Details” still.‫‏‬ •Central to Preparation of most of “Planning‫‏‬ Documents.

develop list of both activities & outcomes which: -Represent Exhaustive -Non-redundant set of results to be accomplished (outcomes) & Work to be done (activities) IOT complete project.Problem When Planning •Some managers think: -Outcomes (Event). -Many mix two. •Problem . . -Specific Tasks (Activities).

Procedure-”Hierarchical Planning System” (HPS)_ •First.Set of these Action Plans. sub-activities & sub-events. . •Advantage of PP: – contains all Planning information in one Document. Goals are specified.“Project Action Plan” (PAP). •Aid planner in identification of set of required activities for: – – – Goals to be Met. Each Activity –has Outcome (event). are sub divided again. These activities & events (A & E) Project Plan (PP).

.•Project. •“Get specifics on m/c Center mounting points”. •Task Preparation of Fl Site” Sub divide elemental parts. •“Constructing specifics on Plant Fl”.Install large mating Center in Existing Plant. •“Present final plan for Fl Preparation for approval”. •In hierarchy of work Tasks: a) “Develop Plan for preparation of Fl site” b) “Develop Plan to Maintain Plant output during Installation & Test Period.” •These tasks-too larger set of jobs to be done.

. • Additional information in this form added later at B & S stage.• A Form to Assist Hierarchical Planning.

Print participants’ certificates Secretary Graduate Assistant 6 8 1. Contact org c.B Print shop Word processing e. Gather University’s particulars Secretary Program Manager Office Manager Secretary 6 15 4 4 1. Resources a.D - Print shop do .B 1.A 1. collect display information d. Print forms b. Contact Organizations Responsibility Time (Weeks)‫‏‬ Prec.Partial Action Plan for VU Talent Hunt Day Objective:‫‏‬Organize‫‏&‏‬Celebrate‫‏‬Talent‫‏‬Hunt‫‏‏‬Day‫‏‬at‫‏‬VU” Steps 1. Print programs f.

Select guest speaker b. Organize refreshment Program Manager Program Manager Director Graduate Assistant 14 3 10 7 1. Banquet & Refreshments a.b 1.b Caterer Refreshment Dept Purchasing .b 1. Organize food c. Organize Gifts and University Memento d. (Weeks)‫‏‬ Resources 2.Partial Action Plan for VU Talent Hunt Day Objective:‫‏‬Talent‫‏‬Hunt‫‏&‏‬Job‫‏‬Fair‫‏‬Day” Steps Responsibility Time Prec.

(Weeks)‫‏‬ 2 5.d 1.d 1. Advertise in university web /news paper f.5 5 1 4.d 1.5 1. Send invitations b.5 5 1. Organize certificates c.d 3. Contact faculty e. Organize posters Responsibility Time Prec. Arrange banners d. Publicity & Promotion a.Partial Action Plan for VU Talent Hunt Day Talent‫‏‬Hunt‫‏&‏‬Job‫‏‬Fair‫‏‬Day” Steps 3.d Resources Graduate Assistant Graduate Assistant Graduate Assistant Program Manager Secretary Graduate Assistant Secretary World processing Print shop Word processing Newspaper Registrar’s office Print shop . Class announcements g.

5 4.c Resources Program Manager b.Partial Action Plan for VU Talent Hunt Day Objective: Career Day Steps 4. Facilities a. (Weeks)‫‏‬ 2. Transport materials Office Manager . Arrange facility for event Responsibility Time Prec.a Movers .5 1.

Sorting‫‏‬Out‫‏‬Project‫‏‬Contd… Trees diagram rep HPS. . type of diagram Gozinto chart -Professor Gozinto.

Gozinto Chart ( Sorting Out the Proj)‫‏‬ Level 0 00057 Toy car(case lot)‫‏‬ Level 1 10002 Case label 10157 Toy car package 10001 Packing case Level 2 20003 Bus box 20289 Toy bus Level 3 30089 Body 30077 Wheel/axle Level 4 400337 Plastic dye-blue 50317 Plastic powder 40050 Axle 40039 Wheel Level 5 50317 Plastic powder 50702 Plastic dye-black .

Action Plan for AjaxInstat merger in Memo Forms .

1/1/06 Advise Instat regional managers of sales division changes Due Date September 24 September 24 Responsibil Precede ity nt Bob Carl. October 15 Bob Carl 2.Tabular Action Plan for Ajax-Instat merger based on Memo Objective: Merger of Ajax Hardware into Instat Corp.2006 Steps 1. 2. October 15 Bob Carl 1 4. Ajax mgt advised of changes Begin preparing Instat sales dept to sell Ajax consumer Division products effective 1/1/96 Prepare to create two sales groups: (1) Instat (2) Ajax Builder Group eff. by Apr 1.3 . Van Baker Bob Carl 1 3.

by Apr 1. October 22 October 24 October 29 Bob Carl.2006 Steps Due Date Responsibility Precedent 5. Van Baker.5 6 6 7 . Ken Roadway Instat regional managers 4. Val Walters Van Baker Brent Sharp. Advise Ajax regional managers of sales division changes Visit Ajax management & plan to discuss merger of operations Advise Ajax sales personnel & agents Visit Instat to coordinate changeover Interview Ajax sales personnel for possible positions October 15 Van Baker 2.Sorting‫‏‬Out‫‏‬Project‫‏‬Contd… Objective: Merger of Ajax Hardware into Instat Corp. 9. October 15 7. 8.3 6.

November 26 8.Sorting‫‏‬Out‫‏‬Project‫‏‬Contd… Objective: Merger of Ajax Hardware into Instat Corp.10 12. Sales training sessions for Ajax products Visit Ajax again Due Date November 5 Responsibility Instat regional managers Val Walters Precedent 9 11. Sam Newman 6 13. Request DP tapes from Bob Cawley for conversion Offer Norwood warehouse for sublease November 30 Morrie Reddish. December 3 Val Walters 11 .2006 Steps 10. by Apr 1.

. Tabular Action Plan for Ajax-Instat Merger Due Date December 3 December 3 December 14 Responsibility Precedent Doug Crutchfield Fred Abbott. structure file . . . . bill of materials. 15. . . Write order procedures Sales meeting (instruction – product line & procedures) DP tapes due for master inventory file.Sorting‫‏‬Out‫‏‬Project‫‏‬Contd… Objective: Merger of Ajax Hardware into Instat Corp. by Apr 1. . . Doug Bob Cawley 10 14 12 . 16.2006 Steps 14.

Serve wide variety of purposes. These WBSs are usually in form of outlines with first level tasks at left. •It can take wide variety of forms.WBS & Linear Responsibility Charts •Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) not one thing. Many of project management software packages actually create WBSs automatically. etc. as type of Gozinto Chart or Tree constructed directly from Project Action Plans. given that action plans have been input. . •Pictures project subdivided into hierarchical units of: – Tasks – subtasks – work packages. & successive levels appropriately in dented.

In additional time contingency reserve for unforeseeable delays might be included. Similarly.Work Breakdown Structure & Linear Responsibility Charts 1. schedule information & milestone (significant) events can be aggregated into project master schedule. key interfaces & sequencing. milestones events & progress reports. It is comprehensive & may include contractual commitments. Master schedule integrates many different schedules relevant to various parts of project. .