Chapter 16 Cultural Influences on Consumer Behavior

and Traditions Among the Members of an Organization or Society and Determines: Overall Priorities A Consumer Attaches to Different Activities and Products Success or Failure of Specific Products and Services .Understanding Culture 16-2 Culture is the Accumulation of Shared Meanings. Norms. Rituals.

Aspects of Culture 16-3 A Cultural System Consists of 3 Functional Areas: Social Structure Way in Which Orderly Social Life is Maintained Ecology Way a System is Adapted to Its Habitat Ideology Way in Which People Relate to Their Environment and Social Groups .

4 Dimensions Appear to Account for Much of This Variability. Uncertainty Avoidance Masculinity/ Femininity Individualism . Power Distance How Interpersonal Relationships Form When Power Differences Exist.Other Aspects of Culture 16-4 Although Every Culture is Different. Degree to Which Sex Roles Are Clearly Delineated. Extent to Which the Welfare of the Individual Versus the Group is Valued. Degree to Which People Feel Threatened by Ambiguous Situations.

Values of a Culture 16-5 Values are Very General Ideas About Good and Bad Goals Enacted Norms Explicitly Decided On Crescive Norms Embedded in Culture Customs Mores Conventions .

Myths Serve 4 Interrelated Functions in a Culture: Metaphysical Cosmological Psychological Sociological .Myths 16-6 A Myth is a Story Containing Symbolic Elements That Expresses the Shared Emotions and Ideals Of a Culture.

Marriage Festivals. Birthdays Grooming. Ritual Type Religious Rites of Passage Cultural Examples Baptism. Mass Graduation. Symbolic Behaviors That Occur in a Fixed Sequence and That Tend to Be Repeated Periodically. Elections.Types of Ritual Experience 16-7 A Ritual is a Set of Multiple. Meditation. Household Civic Group Family Personal . Trials Business Negotiations Mealtimes. Holidays Parades.

Giving Rituals The Gift .Gift .Giving Ritual Can Be Broken Down Into the Following Three Distinct Stages: 16-8 Gestation Giver is Motivated By An Event to Buy a Gift Presentation Process of Gift Exchange Reformulation Bonds Between Parties Are Adjusted .

Holiday Rituals Thanksgiving Valentine’s Day Secretaries’ Day Grandparents’ Day Christmas 16-9 What Rituals Are Associated With the Following Holidays? New Year’s Halloween .

Liminality Person is In-Between Statuses Stage 3. Separation Detaching From the Original Group Stage 2.Rites of Passage 16-10 Rites of Passage Can be Construed as Being Special Times Marked by a Change in Social Status. Stage 1. Aggregation Person Reenters Society After Rite-of-Passage is Complete .

Everyday Objects and Events That Do Not Share The “Specialness” of Sacred Ones.Sacred and Profane Consumption Sacred Consumption > Involves Objects and Events That Are “Set Apart” From Normal Activities. . 16-11 Profane Consumption > Involves Consumer Objects and Events That Are Ordinary. and Are Treated With Some Degree of Respect or Awe.

– Others are created from the profane world and given special sacred qualities (i. .Domains of Sacred Consumption • Sacred Places – May have religious or mystical significance. 16-12 • Sacred People – Memorabilia can take on special meaning. from baseball cards to clothing the special person has touched or worn. Disney World. or shopping malls) – The home is a particularly scared place.e.

a miniature Statue of Liberty).e. even family vacations. wine from California). “A piece of the event” such as a rock or seashell. post cards).Domains of Sacred Consumption • Sacred Events – Many consumer’s activities (events) have taken on special status. the Olympics. Symbolic shorthand (i. Pictorial images (i. . » Examples would include the Super Bowl. the World Series. 16-13 – Personal mementos from sacred events can include: » » » » Local products (i.e.e. Hard Rock Cafe T-shirts).e. » Markers (i.

becoming profane as a result. » Collecting refers to the systematic acquisition of a particular object or set of objects. or Elvis. events. . and some profane things have become sacred.From Sacred to Profane. religion. artwork. – Examples: Monuments. » Objectification occurs when sacred qualities are attributed to mundane objects. take on sacred meaning to a culture or to specific groups within a culture. American flag. – Desacralization occurs when a sacred item or symbol is removed from its special place or is duplicated in mass quantities. – Sacralization occurs when ordinary objects. and even people. and Back Again 16-14 • Some sacred things have become profane. – Examples: Super Bowl.

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