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Chapter 16 Cultural Influences on Consumer Behavior

Understanding Culture 16-2 Culture is the Accumulation of Shared Meanings. and Traditions Among the Members of an Organization or Society and Determines: Overall Priorities A Consumer Attaches to Different Activities and Products Success or Failure of Specific Products and Services . Norms. Rituals.

Aspects of Culture 16-3 A Cultural System Consists of 3 Functional Areas: Social Structure Way in Which Orderly Social Life is Maintained Ecology Way a System is Adapted to Its Habitat Ideology Way in Which People Relate to Their Environment and Social Groups .

Other Aspects of Culture 16-4 Although Every Culture is Different. Uncertainty Avoidance Masculinity/ Femininity Individualism . Degree to Which Sex Roles Are Clearly Delineated. Extent to Which the Welfare of the Individual Versus the Group is Valued. 4 Dimensions Appear to Account for Much of This Variability. Power Distance How Interpersonal Relationships Form When Power Differences Exist. Degree to Which People Feel Threatened by Ambiguous Situations.

Values of a Culture 16-5 Values are Very General Ideas About Good and Bad Goals Enacted Norms Explicitly Decided On Crescive Norms Embedded in Culture Customs Mores Conventions .

Myths Serve 4 Interrelated Functions in a Culture: Metaphysical Cosmological Psychological Sociological .Myths 16-6 A Myth is a Story Containing Symbolic Elements That Expresses the Shared Emotions and Ideals Of a Culture.

Meditation. Marriage Festivals.Types of Ritual Experience 16-7 A Ritual is a Set of Multiple. Trials Business Negotiations Mealtimes. Holidays Parades. Elections. Birthdays Grooming. Ritual Type Religious Rites of Passage Cultural Examples Baptism. Household Civic Group Family Personal . Symbolic Behaviors That Occur in a Fixed Sequence and That Tend to Be Repeated Periodically. Mass Graduation.

Giving Rituals The Gift .Giving Ritual Can Be Broken Down Into the Following Three Distinct Stages: 16-8 Gestation Giver is Motivated By An Event to Buy a Gift Presentation Process of Gift Exchange Reformulation Bonds Between Parties Are Adjusted .Gift .

Holiday Rituals Thanksgiving Valentine’s Day Secretaries’ Day Grandparents’ Day Christmas 16-9 What Rituals Are Associated With the Following Holidays? New Year’s Halloween .

Aggregation Person Reenters Society After Rite-of-Passage is Complete . Liminality Person is In-Between Statuses Stage 3. Stage 1. Separation Detaching From the Original Group Stage 2.Rites of Passage 16-10 Rites of Passage Can be Construed as Being Special Times Marked by a Change in Social Status.

16-11 Profane Consumption > Involves Consumer Objects and Events That Are Ordinary.Sacred and Profane Consumption Sacred Consumption > Involves Objects and Events That Are “Set Apart” From Normal Activities. . and Are Treated With Some Degree of Respect or Awe. Everyday Objects and Events That Do Not Share The “Specialness” of Sacred Ones.

. – Others are created from the profane world and given special sacred qualities (i.e. 16-12 • Sacred People – Memorabilia can take on special meaning.Domains of Sacred Consumption • Sacred Places – May have religious or mystical significance. or shopping malls) – The home is a particularly scared place. Disney World. from baseball cards to clothing the special person has touched or worn.

even family vacations. wine from California). post cards). Hard Rock Cafe T-shirts).e. » Markers (i.e.e. “A piece of the event” such as a rock or seashell. the World Series.Domains of Sacred Consumption • Sacred Events – Many consumer’s activities (events) have taken on special status. a miniature Statue of Liberty). Symbolic shorthand (i. . » Examples would include the Super Bowl.e. the Olympics. Pictorial images (i. 16-13 – Personal mementos from sacred events can include: » » » » Local products (i.

and even people. American flag. – Examples: Monuments. becoming profane as a result. – Sacralization occurs when ordinary objects. and some profane things have become sacred. take on sacred meaning to a culture or to specific groups within a culture. or Elvis. – Desacralization occurs when a sacred item or symbol is removed from its special place or is duplicated in mass quantities. » Objectification occurs when sacred qualities are attributed to mundane objects.From Sacred to Profane. » Collecting refers to the systematic acquisition of a particular object or set of objects. religion. events. – Examples: Super Bowl. . and Back Again 16-14 • Some sacred things have become profane. artwork.