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EM 6113 Engineering Management Techniques

Week 11 Ch 2 – Business Is About People Ch 3 – Why Do People Make Things So Difficult Ch 5 – Everything Depends on the Customer Ch 7 – Conflict is Inevitable, Get Over It

Principle 1: Mastering Relationships
 People are central to business
 Employees, boss, coworkers  Suppliers, customers, regulators  Family, friends, community

 People need to be…
    Led Motivated Accommodated Organized

Chapter 2: Business is about People
      Social interaction Communication Competition Politics Conflict What are engineers good at?

Making the Transition  Social/people focus  Relationships  Communication  Conflict resolution  New definition of success     Leadership Motivation Strategy (direction) Business/customer focus .

Making a Successful Transition to Management       Mastering relationships Seeing the big picture Getting things done Communicating effectively Using assets wisely Taking it to the next level .

People problem?  What makes humans unique?        Bounded rationality? Introversion? Emotions? Motivation? Sense of injustice Ego Individualistic  Women and interpersonal dealings? .

Most Important Ingredient?  If you ask…  Engineers?  Computer Programmers?  Sales people? .

influence Focus on a goal Decision making. motivation.Successful Projects  Done by a group of people with good     Organization. problem solving . communication Leadership.

Not About Technology  The best technology does not always win  Sony Betamax/VHS  Windows/Mac  Linux/Windows? .

Management success  In modern society. technology second . we are specialists     We have expertise in a very narrow area We rely on others for everything else Relationships enable success No polymaths?  Your ability to deal with people determines your success as a manager  Put people first.

Your Network of People          Subordinates Supervisor Management Sponsors Functional Managers Customers Other stakeholders Community Loved ones! .

acquire good people skills .Chapter 2 Themes  Engineers are valued for their technical abilities  Relationships rule business  People issues dominate relationships  To make the transition to management.

Chapter 3: Why People Seem Difficult  Technical systems. although complex. obey logical rules and/or laws  Deterministic vs random  Individual people are more complex and follow no set rules  A system of multiple people is incredibly complex and unpredictable  Why? What forces play a role? .

circumstances. rather neutral  Like writing with your „right‟ hand  Appreciate diversity! .Beahviorists‟ view  Though unique. personality patterns  Not permanent  Depends on several factors  Mood. experiences  Not good or bad.

Personality Types  Myers-Briggs Type Indicator  Extrovert/Introvert (external/internal)  Sensing/iNtuitive (concrete/abstract)  How we gather and process information  Thinking/Feeling (what we trust)  Decision criteria  Judging/Perceiving (planned/spontaneous)  How we organize our life .

Uses of Personality Typing     Person-job match Identify areas for development Anticipating and resolving conflict Promoting diversity .

Dangers of Personality Typing
 Results of tests may differ depending on when they are taken  Putting people into one of 16 (2^4) neat categories seems overly simple  Types can become stereotypes

Behavioral Tendencies
 People tend to do what is best for themselves  People want to avoid looking bad  People tend to go with the crowd  People make communication challenging  People are imperfect

Emotional Intelligence
 Emotion and intelligence are connected, not opposites  Emotions affect thinking, reasoning, judgment, actions  Emotional IQ may be more important than traditional IQ in success  Engineers usually have low emotional IQ

Chapter 3 Themes  People are complex and hard to predict  Systems of people are difficult to manage  Knowing about personality types and behavioral tendencies (raising your Emotional IQ) can help you be a better manager  Most engineers have a long way to go .

Chapter 5: Customer Orientation  Customers pay our bills  Customer service should be a high priority  Customers ultimately decide the fate of your business  Manufacturing vs. Service .

increase production  Internal customer focus  Customer wants quality  Reduce defects  External customer focus  Determine customer needs.Evolution of Manufacturing  Internal company focus  Market is infinite  Reduce costs. meet them .

Lack of Customer Focus  Engineers…  See value in technical elegance  Are often ignorant of customer desires or needs  Are impatient with non-technical people  Companies focus on…  Internal performance  Performance against competitors  Marketing focuses on the next big sale .

Build Customer Focus  Walk a mile in their shoes  Consider your experiences as a customer  Look at your business from a customer‟s perspective  Know your customers  Who are they?  Do they obey the Pareto principle?  What do they want (good. fast. cheap) .

low cost. availability  Laggards – buy only when forced to .Adoption Cycle  Innovators – buy technology for its own sake  Early adopters – buy when benefits become known  Majority – proven technology. style.

Pleasing Customers  WOW them with extraordinary service  Remember that they are human beings  Develop relationships with them  Be genuine  Make it a top priority – because it is! .

Chapter 5 Themes  Customer focus should be the ultimate business goal  Build a customer-oriented culture  This can be a big change for an engineer .

3. You get a point if the back of your partner‟s hand touches the table 2.The Exercise 1. 4. . You want to get as many points for yourself as possible. GO. You will have only 10 seconds to get as many points as you can.

4. Assume a zero-sum world Approach negotiations as adversaries Restrict communication Limit negotiators‟ ability to find an optimal solution .The Arm „Wrestle‟ Exercise  The Arm Exercise quickly and clearly establishes the need for training. 2. 3. showing our tendency to: 1.

What is Conflict?  “…a state of incompatible behaviors” (D.T. Johnson. Johnson.  Perception of mutual interference  A process that begins when goals of one person/party are frustrated by another . & R. p. 1996. 463).W.

Facts about Conflict  In conflict both parties tend to believe that their opinion is fact  Conflicts are mostly seen as zero-sum by both parties  Too often both parties see themselves as innocent victims who represent the side of truth and fairness .

Views on Conflict     …  Conflict Conflict Conflict Conflict Good (Interactionist‟s view) Natural (Naturalist‟s view) Avoidable (Pacifist‟s view) Bad (Traditionalist‟s view) Conflict Inevitable … therefore it must be managed (Engineering manager‟s view!) .

but there may be positive or negative outcomes. .1  Conflict is a natural phenomenon. neither inherently good or bad.Conflict Resolution Theory .

Conflict Resolution Theory . believing their way is right and develop negative feelings toward each other . serves as a release to pent-up.2  Conflict is Positive/Constructive  when it results in clarification. and use the conflict to build cooperation and trust  Conflict is Negative/Destructive  when it diverts energy. polarizes groups and deepens differences. parties take „either or‟ positions. when parties understand each others‟ needs.

two out of them related to conflicts: 1. Conflict avoidance (Spouse) 2. Conflict resolution (Brotherhood) .Importance of CM in Islam  Three instances where one is allowed to „lie‟.

procedures and structures.Sources of Conflict . time. or concern factors that are important for the distribution of these means.  Conflicts of interest  concern the distribution of means such as money. ownership. staff. . competence and expertise. and space. means. such as importance.1  Instrumental conflicts  concern goals.

lack of respect. Relational conflicts may center on loyalty. and important aspects in relationships. . or betrayal of friendship.2  Relational/Personal conflicts  are about questions of identity and selfimage.Sources of Conflict . breach of confidence.

Responses to Conflicts .


Methods of Managing Conflict .

Common Communication Behaviors     Passive Behavior Aggressive Behavior Passive Aggressive Behavior Assertive Behavior .

Bring harm or inconvenience to ourselves to avoid harming or inconveniencing others 7. Consider ourselves less knowledgeable or capable than others. refraining from taking a stand 3.Passive Behavior  Let someone else decide what will happen 1. Allow others to make decisions for us 4. . Keep our voice low &/or avoid eye contact. Don‟t participate or share our thoughts 2. Agree with others despite our real feelings 6. Always stick to middle-of-the-road. 5.

4.Aggressive Behavior  Complete opposite of passive. Accept responsibility and positions of authority for the purpose of manipulation or to give us a means of influencing others . Interrupt others when they are speaking Try to impose our position on others Make decisions for others Accuse. 3. Consider ourselves more capable than others 7. 5. 1. 2. blame and find fault with others Bring harm or cause inconvenience to others rather than to ourselves 6.

Passive Aggressive Behavior  A combination of the two previous 1. e. in the back room or with one or two people 2.g. Deny people an opportunity to deal with dissent since opinions not expressed openly are difficult to deal with openly 3. but become very vocal when the issue can no longer be addressed. Don‟t participate and share thoughts when it is appropriate. in a meeting.g. e. Whisper or exclude some people from hearing your point of view. or make side comments that all cannot hear and no one can respond to ...

Allow others to complete their thoughts before we speak 2.Assertive Behaviour  Is self-enhancing 1. Face problems and decisions squarely 5. . Stand up for the position that matches our feelings or the evidence 3. Face responsibility with respect to our situation. but generally equal to other people 6. Make our own decisions based on what is right 4. Consider ourselves strong and capable. our own and others‟ needs and rights.

Steps to Assertive Communication D E S Describe the specific situation Express your concerns about the action Suggest other alternatives C Consequences should be stated .

 Express how you feel: I find it frustrating that you just push into line without concern for others  Specify an alternative: I think it is only fair that you go to the end of the line and wait your turn like everyone else.Interloper in a Queue  Describe the situation: “Excuse me. I will inform the authorities . There is a line-up here of people who all want to… .  State the consequences: If you don‟t line up properly. Some of us have been waiting for over an hour.

rather than speaking for others (we all think) or speaking in the passive tense. receptive posture 2.Active Listening Techniques . .1 1. and feelings. 4. Paraphrasing: repeating in your own words what the other person has said 3. Attending: using non-verbal indicators such as leaning forward. sitting in an open. Clarifying: asking for further clarification or an example to illustrate often helps find clarity in the meaning. Do not make assumptions about others. Speaking from the self: using "I" statements. their opinions.

. “you seem to feel very strongly about that” 8. e. identify and explore options and alternatives e. 6.short. Reflecting: playing back the communication as you hear and feel it.2 5. . use probes .Active Listening Techniques . Encouraging: asking person to “tell me more about” or give them a supportive comment like “good idea” or “I like that approach”. Asking: probing questions. open questions to dig deeper into issues.g. 7.g.. Summarizing: giving back a review or summary of what you heard. This helps make sure the communication is accurate.

Conclusions  Conflict can be Beneficial  Conflicts force groups to explore many possibilities  Unexpressed conflicts remain unresolved  Conflict can be neutral  Not emotional/personal  Not win/lose .

Chapter 8: Politics  Playing politics is about:  Sharing power  Influence without authority  Outside the formal organization  Protecting and supporting  Yourself  Your area of responsibility  Your subordinates .

There will be Khulafa'a and they will number many.Politics according to Islam  Imam Muslim reported that the prophet (S.) said: "The children of Israel used to be ruled (tassusahum) by their prophets. . Whenever a prophet died another prophet succeeded him.W.A. but there will be no prophet after me.

good natured)  Cutthroat (willing to hurt others)  Practitioner (recognize value but not compelled to hurt others) .Political Participation  Cynic (avoidance)  Innocent (unaware or uninterested)  Opportunist (personal gain.

Myths about Politics  All politics are dirty  Some organizations are political and some are not  To play politics. you have to kiss up  I should not need to play politics  I must abandon my ethical principles to play politics .

friend. etc.)  Politics take precedence over productivity .Political Negatives  Unethical or dirty politics  Kissing up to the boss  Relationships outside of the organization (family.

Political Tools  Alliances  Common goals  Mutual benefit  Trading  Positive – back scratching  Negative – back stabbing  Competition for resources  Information is power .

Is Your Organization Political?  Functional structure  Hidden power structure  Political structure (committees)  Reward system  Salary  Advancement (power)  Can you find out at a job interview? .

Hone Your Political Skills  Recognize the political landscape  Hidden organization  Hidden agendas  Current “hot buttons”  Improve your chances  Emulate successful people  Build relationships  Be willing to trade .

Political Missteps      Stepping on toes Burning bridges The end run (By-passing) “Secret” affair or relationship Spies .

Chapter 8 Themes  Successful managers are good political practitioners  Avoiding politics limits potential  Political missteps damage careers  Level of politics varies between organizations  Political skills can be developed  Not all politics are dirty or bad .