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OBJECTIVES: • Terminology • Definitions: system elements and block diagrams • Automatic control


Automation: a technology which uses programmed commands. combined with feedback information. For example. to operate a given process. altitude. to determine that the commands have been properly executed. and power of an aircraft. control in aeronautics refers to the apparatus used to control the speed. direction of flight. Controller Inputs System Outputs Disturbances 2 .Definitions: Controls Control: the critical process of making a variable or system of variables conform to what is desired.

depending on the process instrumentation. and consists of the variables that can be observed in the process.  The inputs that act on the system and can be controlled are in the control vector.Definitions: System Elements  The parameters scale the process' response to inputs and its own motions in the dynamic process. and those that are beyond are control are disturbances.  Since there usually is an error associated with the measurements.  The output can contain non or all of the preceeding elements or their transformations. or both. the observations are a combination of the output and the error. including its response to inputs and initial conditions.  The state represents the dynamic condition of the process. the observation. 3 .

Notation: System Elements Block Diagram 4 .

Approaches: • Classical control • Modern control • Post-modern control. This is the least complex of all control devices. and intelligent systems 5 .Automatic Control • In an open-loop control system the control action is independent of the output. • In a closed-loop or feedback control system knowledge of the output is fed back to the control system to decide on the appropriate control input.

• Methods: frequency response. A major feature of this approach is the adaptability to simple graphical procedures. steady-state behavior. scalar input/output. 1998] • Emphasis: linear time-invariant systems. stability margins. [Stengel.Classical Control Approach • Classical control had its beginnings in the late 1930s. transfer function. • Enabling technologies: analog computers (-1950). 1998] 6 . sensors and actuators. which was particularly important during this time period because computers were not yet available. [Nelson. frequency domain. and Laplace transforms. root locus.

probabilistic design. numerical search. • Emphasis: time domain.. [Stengel. performance. failure tolerance. H/ synthesis. 1998] 7 . . • Methods: linear-quadratic regulator. multivariable systems. Post-modern control • Methods: fuzzy control. Kalman filter. decision making. optimal trajectory. It has gained popularity with the advent of the digital computer that has made these more intuitive methods efficient. expert systems. • Emphasis: nonlinear time-varying systems. automated analysis and design. neural networks.Modern Control Approach • Modern control has developed since the 1960s. adaptation.

† • Intelligent control system: a controller with the ability to comprehend. §[Åmström. nonlinear environments whose dynamics must ultimately be learned on line. †[Harris. learning quickly.§ • A view of intelligent control: “general purpose control systems that learn over time how to achieve goals (optimize) in complex. storing and retrieving information.§ • Intelligent functions: plan actions. … classifying. identify changes. reasoning. and adjusting to new situations”. disturbances. generalizing. reason. perceiving relationships and analogies. react to unforeseen situations. 1992] 8 . and operating conditions. and learn about processes (dynamic systems). learn from past experience. New Columbia Encyclopedia. improves performance over time.Intelligent Systems • Intelligence: “the ability involved in calculating. 1975] in Handbook of Intelligent Control.

. Control Routing Identification Scheduling Planning . Supervised Learning: Reinforcement Learning: 9 .Learning and Automation (Human) tasks we may wish to automate and might benefit from learning are..