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# WAVES

What is a wave?
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A vibration or disturbance. SOUND & LIGHT are forms of energy that travel in waves.

Period (T)
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A period is the time it takes for one cycle. 1 cycle = 1 complete trip
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1 trip back & forth Around and back to the same point 1 wave = 1 cycle

# of waves in one second.Frequency (ƒ)     # of cycles in one second. 1 Hz = 1 cycle per second . Measured in Hertz (Hz).

 frequency = 1 period  period = 1 frequency .

What is its frequency?     100 waves in 2 seconds 100 waves per 2 seconds 50 waves/ 1 second 50 waves/ second = 50 Hz .Give it a try…  A wave vibrates 100 times in 2 seconds.

What is its period? ƒ = 0.Give it a try… The Sears Tower moves back and forth at a frequency of about 0.1 Hz T= 10 sec  .1 Hz T = 1/ ƒ T= 1/ 0.1 Hz.

Parts of a wave .

.Parts of a wave     Crest= High point of a wave. Wavelength (λ)= The length of one complete wave. Trough=Low point of a wave. Amplitude (A)= Distance from the midpoint to the crest.

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   Crest to crest Trough to trough Midpoint (past crest & trough) to midpoint .Wavelength (λ)  The length of one wave is measured from a point on one wave to that same point on the next wave.

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 Medium is the material it passes through.Speed of a wave  The speed of a wave depends on the medium it travels through. .

Wave speed (m/s) = wavelength • = (m) • frequency (Hz) ν =•ƒ .

What is the velocity of a wave that is 2 m long with a frequency of 10Hz? λ = 2m ƒ = 10Hz    =•ƒ = (2m)(10Hz) = 20m/s .

Example: Light .Types of waves  Transverse:   The medium moves at a right angle to the direction of the wave.

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Types of Waves  Compressional   A Compressional wave is when matter vibrates in the same direction as the wave travels. . These are also known as Longitudinal waves.

 Longitudinal:   The medium moves in the same direction as the wave. Example: Sound waves .

.Parts of a Compressional Wave   Compression: where the wave “squeezes” or compresses the medium Rarefraction: Where there is space in the wave with no compression.

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Type of medium The type of medium changes the way a wave moves. Mediums with close molecules travel quickly. . This is why waves travel better in liquids and solids than in gases.

The speed of sound through air is 344 m/s! That is really fast! .Waves through air    However. air can still let waves pass at a great speed.

Soak into PENETRATE.Bend DIFFRACT.Break up GET ABSORBED.Bounce off REFRACT.Pass through .What happens to a wave when it runs into something?      REFLECT.

SOUND NOTES .

.How does sound travel?   Sound is a form of energy that moves in waves through matter. Sound waves are longitudinal waves or compressional waves.

As a sound wave travels further from the object. the wave gets weaker. .Properties of Sound Waves   Sound waves move out from a vibrating object in all directions.

 Your vocal cords vibrate air molecules.How is sound produced?  The movement of particles around a vibrating object creates a sound wave. . They vibrate other air molecules and so on until the air molecules by the listener’s ear vibrate their ear drum.

Speed of sound  The speed of sound in air at room temperature is about 344 m/s. vSound in Air = 344 m/s .

Does sound move faster in:   air or water? water or steel? . they hit faster and the wave (sound) moves faster.Speed of Sound   If the particles are closer together.

When one particle bumps another that bumps another and so on, a sound is made. IS THERE SOUND IN SPACE?

LOUD and soft Sounds

Intensity: strength of a sound

Which sound is more intense, an airplane or talking?

Which has more energy?

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Intensity is measured in Decibels. Your ear hears intensity as volume of a sound.

Intensity of a wave

The intensity of a wave is shown by the amplitude. An intense sound is LOUD so it has a high amplitude.

LOUD

SOFT

A low sound like a tuba has a low pitch.   A high sound like a flute has a high pitch.and  sounds The pitch describes high and low sounds. .

Pitch of a wave  The pitch of a wave is shown by the frequency.  . A high pitch sound has a high frequency and a short wavelength.

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Sonar uses echo to locate objects under water. they make an echo.ECHOS    When sound waves reflect. . Ultrasound uses echos to “see” inside the human body.

Sound .

Sound Sound is a wave that is created by vibrating objects and propagated through a medium from one location to another. .

The pressure of the air varies or oscillates about an average value. The air molecules collide. . Sound waves move through air because a vibrating source produces regular variations in air pressure. transmitting the pressure oscillations away from the source of the sound. the MEAN AIR PRESSURE.Sound Sound is produced by the compresion and rarefaction of matter.

a sound wave is characterized as a mechanical wave. .Sound is a Mechanical Wave sound wave is a disturbance that is transported through a medium via the mechanism of particle-to-particle interaction.

These disturbances are passed on to adjacent air molecules by the mechanism of particle interaction. The motion of the disturbance. .Sound is a Mechanical Wave The creation and propagation of sound waves are often demonstrated in class through the use of a tuning fork. they begin to disturb surrounding air molecules. A tuning fork is a metal object consisting of two tines capable of vibrating if struck by a rubber hammer or mallet. originating at the tines of the tuning fork and traveling through the medium (in this case. air) is what is referred to as a sound wave. As the tines of the tuning forks vibrate back and forth.

Tunning Fork .

the sound of the ringing bell can no longer be heard.Sound can’t travel in a vacuum A ringing bell is placed in a jar and air inside the jar is evacuated. Once air is removed from the jar. but the sound that it produces cannot be heard because there are no particles inside of the jar to transport the disturbance through the vacuum. . Sound is a mechanical wave and cannot travel through a vacuum. The clapper is seen striking the bell.

Sound can’t travel in a vacuum .

.Sound as a Longitudinal Wave Sound waves in air (and any fluid medium) are longitudinal waves because particles of the medium through which the sound is transported vibrate parallel to the direction that the sound wave moves.

whether it is a vibrating string or the vibrating tines of a tuning fork sound waves traveling through air are longitudinal waves. And the essential characteristic of a longitudinal wave that distinguishes it from other types of waves is that the particles of the medium move in a direction parallel to the direction of energy transport.Sound as a Longitudinal Wave Regardless of the source of the sound wave . .

.Sound is a Pressure Wave Since a sound wave consists of a repeating pattern of high-pressure and low-pressure regions moving through a medium. it is sometimes referred to as a pressure wave.

Sound is a Pressure Wave .

Sound is a Pressure Wave .

is able to reflect off fixed ends and interfere with incident waves e. causing the bunching up of sound. c. it is able to bend into the regions of space behind obstacles. d. waves have a speed that is dependent only upon the properties of the medium. regions of high (compressions) and low pressure (rarefactions) are established as the result of the vibrations of the sound source. a. is more dense than air and thus has more inertia. the longitudinal movement of air produces pressure fluctuations. ..Check Your Understanding A sound wave is a pressure wave. is like all waves. vibrates longitudinally. b. These compressions and rarefactions result because sound….

.Check Your Understanding Answer: E Since the particles of the medium vibrate in a longitudinal fashion. compressions and rarefactions are created.

as insubmarine navigation) to navigate.TRIVIA!!! Sonar (originally an acronym for SOund Navigation And Ranging) is a technique that uses sound propagation (usually underwater. communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water. .

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.Terms to Remember! Wavelength of sound wave – is the distance between adjacent regions of maximum pressure.

Terms to Remember! Period – It is the measurement of the time between successive high pressure points (corresponding to the compressions) or the time between successive low pressure points (corresponding to the rarefactions). .

The frequency of a wave is measured as the number of complete back-and-forth vibrations of a particle of the medium per unit of time. .refers to how often the particles of the medium vibrate when a wave passes through the medium.Terms to Remember! Frequency .

more than 20 000 Hz) ..Any sound with a frequency below the audible range of hearing (i.e..Terms to Remember! Infrasound . less than 20 Hz) Ultrasound .Any sound with a frequency above the audible range of hearing (i.e.

It is commonly heard when a vehicle sounding a siren or horn approaches. it is identical at the instant of passing by. . and recedes from an observer. and it is lower during the recession. The received frequency is higher (compared to the emitted frequency) during the approach.Terms to Remember! Doppler Shift – is the change in frequency of a wave (or other periodic event) for an observer moving relative to its source. passes.

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Terms to Remember! Pitch – The Frequency of the wave. . Loudness – depends on the amplitude of the pressure variation wave.

.Sound Levels  It is a logarithmic measure of the effective sound pressure of a sound relative to a reference value.  It is measured in decibels(dB) above a standard reference level.

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German phycist and an English phycist. Herman Helmholtz and Lord Rayleigh. studied how the human voice as well as musical intruments produces sounds. and how human ear detects these sounds. .Sound of Music In 19th century.

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The cone creates the sound waves. trombone. or cone. The human voice is the result of vibrations of the vocal cords. .Sources of Sound Loud Speaker – has a diaphragm. two membranes located in the throat. and tuba. the lips of the performer vibrates. such as the trumpet. that is made to vibrate by electrical currents. Musical instruments such as gong or cymbals and the surfaces of drums are examples of vibrating sources of sound. In brass instruments.

In stringed instruments. such as the piano. a wire or string is set into vibration. Electric instruments use electric devices to detect and amplify the vibrations of the string. saxophone and oboe. Reed instruments. have thin wooden strip. or reed that vibrates as a result of air being blown across it. like the clarinet. guitar and violin. .

The vibration of the diaphragm is then converted into another form of energy. In a sound detector.Perceiving Sounds Sound Detectors convert sound energy (kinetic energy of air molecules) into another form of energy. a diaphragm vibrates at the frequency of the sound waves. .

. very wide range of frequencies and it is also sensitive to an enermous range of wave amplitudes. Most people cannot hear sounds with frequencies below 20 Hz or above 16 000 Hz.The Human Ear The human ear is a sound detector. It can detect sound waves. people are sensitive with sounds with frequencies between 1000 Hz to 5000 Hz By age 70. This affects the ability to understand speech. In general. most people can hear nothing above 8000 Hz.

visible part of the ear called the pinna. which collects sounds and the ear cannal.Parts of the ear The ear is divided into three parts: the outer. The inner ear is filled with a watery liquid. In the middle ear. and inner ear. where the three bones are located (namely hammer. middle. . anvil and stirrup) that transmit the vibrations to oval window on the inner ear. producing the sensation of sound. In the cochlea. tiny hair cells are vibrated by the waves. Vibrations of these cells stimulate the nerve cells that lead to the brain. Sound vibrations are transmitted to trough the liquid into sensitive portions of the cochlea. The outer ears consists of the fleshy.