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Kuliah 24 Ekosistem sebagai Sumber
Why Do We Want to Use Resources Sustainably?
A. Resources provided by ecosystems sustain life. B. There are a limited number of resources in an ecosystem. C. Ecosystems are limited in their ability to cycle resources.
silver. furniture b. vegetables. Food: meat. alcohol e. petroleum. platinum. rayon. nylon. Plastics: petroleum. Ecosystems and Their Goods and Services A. copper (electrical wire). The Goods (Resources) a. cars). grains. Minerals: phosphorus and nitrogen (for farming). dung. fur. Wood: buildings.II. gold. titanium d. polyester. Fuel: wood. aluminum (cans. Clothing: cotton. trees (rayon) 3 . fruits. oils c. iron. paper. leather f.
4 . Evaporated water condenses in the atmosphere and falls to the earth as precipitation. Flooding is prevented by the functioning of dynamic ecosystems because precipitation is absorbed by the ecosystem and slowly released. Maintenance of Hydrologic Cycle: water infiltrates soil and is absorbed by plants.B. The Services 1. Water evaporates from soil or evapotranspires from plants.
Plants. animals. 3. This energy is released when the water condenses. and microorganisms found in terrestrial ecosystems create soil. Heat is moved around the planet in water. Erosion Control and Soil Building: Plant and detritus control erosion by absorbing the impact of precipitation.B. and make a greater surface area available for the absorption of water. 5 . The Services 2. Modification of Climate: Water absorbs a considerable amount of energy from the sun as it evaporates.
Maintenance of Oxygen and Nitrogen Cycles: Photosynthesis releases oxygen. The Minamata Bay disaster resulted when organic mercury was released in industrial effluent and transformed by microorganisms into organic mercury]. Transformation of Toxic Chemicals: Microorganisms transform many toxic chemicals. Waste Treatment: Water is a universal solvent. both organic and inorganic. Many water-soluble pollutants (sediments. 5. Nitrogen fixing microorganisms in the soil maintain soil fertility. 6. [The opposite is true also. into harmless products. excess nutrients) are removed from the water in wetlands. 6 .4.
Pest Management: Predators for the organisms we consider pests exist. biomass. Even more carbon is found in the organic matter of soil 7 . 8. pest management is provided by ecosystems. and soil. The biomass of the forest contains 500 billion metric tons of carbon more than is found in the atmosphere. When predators are maintained. Carbon Storage and Maintenance of the Carbon Cycle: Carbon is cycled through the atmosphere.7.
000 a year for just one acre.4 Worth more than $100. these services are lost when wetlands are bulkheaded and converted for vacation homes.Fig. 8 . 12.
3.B. 2.000 per year of water purification and fish propagation services. Monetary Benefit of Ecosystems 1. 9 . A 1997 study estimated that the world's ecosystems provide $33 trillion worth of goods and services per year. One acre of wetlands does the equivalent of $100. We undervalue the services of ecosystems because their services are provided free of charge.
The eutrophication of Chesapeake Bay is a result of wetland loss and an increase in the added nutrients within its watershed. the monsoons cause great loss of human life and devastation of crops.4. b. consequently. We notice the services when they are gone: a. 10 . Flooding in Bangladesh is a result of deforestation in India.
"Productive user refers to the exploitation of ecosystem resources for economic gain." 11 . shelter. In consumptive "people harvest natural resources in order to provide for their needs for food. fuel and clothing. tools. Consumptive versus Productive Use 1. Patterns of Use of Natural Ecosystems A.III." 2.
etc. This is a conflict between individual gain from and societal loss of the goods and services provided by an ecosystem." 1. miners.) and those who want the ecosystem conserved in a way that produces the greatest good for the largest number of organisms (humans included. This conflict also occurs between those who use public land for private gain (ranchers. "A natural ecosystem will receive protection only if the value society assigns to its natural function is higher than the value the society assigns to exploiting its natural resources.B. 2. loggers.) 12 .
As the population size becomes larger than the MSY. At low population size. the rate of population growth will increase until environmental resistance factors begin to limit population size." 1. This point is MSY. Maximum Sustained Yield (MSY): "The highest possible rate of use that the system can match with its own rate of replacement or maintenance. the rate of growth population decreases and the number of individuals that can be extracted does not increase. 13 .C. How does MSY works? At low population size the rate of population growth will increase because the environmental resistance factors are low.
4. The highest rate of harvesting can occur at the point where the highest recruitment occurs. 3. We typically do not know the point at which the highest recruitment occurs. For example. The difficulty with MSY is determining it.2. North Sea cod were overfished because we do not understand MSY. MSY is the point where the highest rate of recruitment can occur. 14 .
but rather at a lower.8 Maximum sustainable yield occurs not at the maximum population level. 12. optimal population level.Fig. 15 .
mining) 3. Grasslands (grazing. Coastal and open ocean (fishing.D. mining) 2. 1. mining) 16 . Woodlands and forests (logging. it is known as a commons. Groundwater (urban and agricultural use) 4. Tragedy of the Commons: When a resource is held in common or by no one.
IV. Ecosystems Under Pressure A. soil erosion. changed hydrologic cycle. reduced biodiversity. loss of carbon dioxide sink B. Consequences: Reduced productivity and reduced biodiversity 17 . Ocean Ecosystems 1. Threat: Total Removal 2. reduced productivity. Consequences: loss of biomass. Forests and Woodlands 1. Threat: Overexploitation 2.
Threat: Total Removal 2. Grasslands 1. Consequences: Loss of biomass. reduction in biodiversity. loss of carbon dioxide sink. and soil erosion 18 . changed hydrologic cycle.C.
only 17% of wood is used for fuel. 19 .S. 12.Fig.10 In the U.
Fig.12 This figure shows the global fish catch and fish farming equals world total for 1950-97 12.10 In the U. 20 .S. only 17% of wood is used for fuel. Fig. 12.
1982-96.Fig. 12. 21 .13 This figure shows cod landings from Georges Bank.
12.14 This method of harvesting groundfish has been compared to clear-cutting forests because of degradation of the bottom. 12.13 This figure 22 shows cod landings from Georges Bank. 1982-96. .FiFig.g.
Solutions A. Preservation E. Regulation of Commerce (national parks and wildlife refuges. Land Trusts D. Private Ownership of Land B.) C.V. Conservation 23 . etc.
Restoration Ecology: Repairs a damaged ecosystem so that normal functioning returns and the native flora and fauna are again present. B. Lack of Knowledge 2. Exotic Species Have Achieved Dominance 24 . When We Have Gone Too Far Restoration Ecology A.VI. Accumulated Pollutants 4. Disturbed Soils 3. Difficulties 1.
Illinois 2. California 3. California 25 .C. Prairie Restoration at Fermi Labs. Examples: 1. Riparian Habitat Restoration by the Nature Conservancy along the Sacramento River. Wetlands Restoration at Stone Lake on the Consumnes River.
Private Land 1. Who benefits from them? 3. State and Local Land 1.VII. Corporate Owners 26 . What do they provide us? 2. Federal. Why do we have them? B. Land Trusts 2. Public and Private Land in the United States A. Individual Ownes 3.
16 Because the East and Midwest were settled first. federally-owned lands are concentrated in the West and Alaska. 27 .Fig. 12.
28 .Fig.17 The National Park is the center of a much larger ecosystem receiving attention from the Greater Yellowstone Coalition. 12.
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