• • • • • Define leadership Present the background & classic studies of leadership Discuss the traditional theories of leadership Identify modern frameworks for leadership Relate the style implications from the classic studies & modern theories of leadership Identify and analyze the skills needed for effective leadership


• The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals • “When you boil it down, contemporary leadership seems to a matter of aligning people toward common goals and empowering them to take the actions needed to reach them.” Sherman, 1995 • Sanctioned vs. non sanctioned leadership

Managers Vs Leaders
Manager Characteristics • Administers • A copy • Maintains • Focuses on systems and structures • Relies on control • Short range view • Asks how and when • Eye on bottom line • Imitates • Accepts the status quo • Classic good soldiers • Does things right Leader Characteristics • Innovates • An original • Develops • Focuses on people • Inspires trust • Long range perspective • Asks what and why • Eye on horizon • Originates • Challenges the status quo • Own person • Does the right thing

Trait Theories

• What characteristics or traits make a person a leader? • Great Man Theory: Individuals are born either with or without the necessary traits for leadership • Trait theories of leadership sought personality, social, physical or intellectual traits that differentiate leaders from non leaders • Trait view has little analytical or predictive value • Technical, conceptual and human skills (Katz 1974)

Behavioral Theories

• Ohio state studies: initiating structure (task or goal orientation) vs consideration (recognition of individual needs and relationships) • University of Michigan studies: Employee oriented ( genuine concern for people) vs production oriented genuine concern for task)

The Managerial Grid
High 9
8 1,9 Country club management Thoughtful attention needs of people for satisfying relationships leads to A comfortable, friendly organization atmosphere and work tempo 9,9 Team management Work accomplishment is from committed people, interdependence through a “common stake” in organization purpose leads to relationship of trust and respect

Concern for people

7 6 5 4

3 2



5,5 Organization Man Management Adequate organization performance possible through balancing the necessity to get out work with maintaining morale of the people at a satisfactory level 9,1 1,1 Authority-Obedience Impoverished Management Efficiency in operations results Exertion of minimum effort to get from arranging conditions of required work done is appropriate work in such a way that human to sustain organization membership elements interfere to a minimal degree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9


Concern for production


Fiedler Contingency Model
• Effective groups depend upon a proper match between a leader's style of interacting with subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the leader • LPC measures task- or relationship-oriented leadership style ( think of all the coworkers you have ever had and describe one person you least enjoyed working with)

Fiedler-Defining the situation
• After the individual's basic leadership style has been assessed through the LPC, it is necessary to match the leader with the situation • Leader member relations -the degree of confidence, trust, and respect subordinates have on their leader • Task structure -the degree to which task assignments are procedurized • Position power -influence derived from one's formal structural position in the organization

Contingency Theories
Fiedler’s contingency Model
Performance Good Relationship Oriented Task Oriented

poor Category Leader member relations Task structures Position power I




Good High weak

Good Low strong

Good Low weak

Poor High strong

Poor High weak

Poor Low strong

Poor Low weak

Good High Strong

Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory
Style of Leader (High) Low Relationship and Low task High Task and low relationship
ticip atin g

selli ng

Relationship behavior

High relationship High Task And And low task High relationship Task behavior

ati ng


De leg

te l




(High) Immature


High M4

Moderate M3 M2

Low M1

Maturity of follower( s)

Path Goal Theory
Environmental Contingency Factors • Task Structure • Formal authority system • Work Group

Leader Behavior •Directive •Supportive •Participative •Achievement -oriented

Outcomes •Performance •Satisfaction

Subordinate contingency factors •Locus of control •Experience •Perceived ability

Charismatic Leadership
Key Characteristics of Charismatic leaders
• • Self Confidence- They have complete confidence in their judgment and ability. A vision- This is an idealized goal that proposes a future better than the status quo. The greater the disparity between idealized goal and the status quo, the more likely that followers will attribute extraordinary vision to the leader. Ability to articulate the vision- They are able to clarify and state the vision in terms that are understandable to others. This articulation demonstrates an understanding of the followers’ needs and, hence acts as a motivating force. Strong convictions about vision- Charismatic leaders are perceived as being strongly committed, and willing to take on high personal risk, incur high costs, and engage in self-sacrifice to achieve their vision. Behavior that is out of the ordinary- Those with charisma engage in behavior that is perceived as being novel, unconventional, and counter to norms. When successful , these behaviors evoke surprise and admiration in followers. Perceived as being a change agent- Charismatic leaders are perceived as agents of radical change rather than as caretakers of the status quo. Environmental sensitivity- These leaders are able to make realistic assessments of the environmental constraints and resources needed to bring about change.

Transactional vs Transformational leaders
Characteristics of Transactional and transformational leaders
Transactional Leaders
• • • • Contingent Reward: Contracts exchange of rewards for effort, promises rewards for good performance, recognizes accomplishment Management by exception (active): Watches and searches for deviations from rules and standards, takes corrective action. Management by exception (passive): Intervenes only if standards are not met Laissez faire: Abdicates responsibilities, avoids making decisions

Transformational Leaders
• • • • Charisma : Provides vision and sense of mission, instills pride, gains respect trust. Inspiration: Communicates high expectations, uses symbols to focus efforts, expresses important purposes in simple ways. Intellectual Stimulations: Promotes intelligence, rationality, and careful problem solving. Individualized consideration: Gives personal attention, treats each employee individually, coaches, advises.

The Activities of Successful & Effective leaders
Type of Activity Description categories Derived from free Observation
Exchange Information Routine Communication Handling paperwork Planning Traditional Management Decision Making Controlling Interacting with outsiders Socializing /Politicking Motivating/Reinforcing Human Resource Management Disciplining/Punishing Managing conflict staffing Training/Developing


Relative Distribution of Manager’s Activities

Networking (19%) Traditional Management (32%) Human resources (20%)

Routine Communication (29%)

What skills do leaders need?
• Personal Skills

•Coping with stressors •Managing time •Delegating

2.Managing stress

1.Developing Self-awareness

3. Solving Problems creatively •Using the rational approach •Using the creative approach •Fostering innovation in others

•Determining values and priorities •Identifying cognitive style •Assessing attitude toward change

•Interpersonal Skills

•Coaching •Counseling •Listening

5. Gaining power and influences

•Gaining power •Exercise influence •Empowering others

4. Communication supportively 7. Management conflict

6. Motivating others

•Diagnosing poor performance •Identifying causes •Creating a motivating environment •Selecting appropriate strategies •Rewarding accomplishment •Resolving confrontations

The right stuff Covey
• • • • • • • Empower your inner child-children are genuine, speak their mind-so do successful leaders Be slightly weird-effective leaders have their own approach to do things Embrace compensation-everyone likes money, but successful leaders can talk about it Focus carefully –successful leaders are able to handle more than 23 things at a time because they are able to filter out extraneous information and focus on critical issues Speak openly- successful leaders say what they think Don't get even-get mad-good leaders let off steam and get on to the next issue Keep up on the latest developments- successful leaders know the latest jargon and trnds

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