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Job Design and Work Organisation

Presenter Name
Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007

Job design and Work organisation


Aims & Objectives
Explain Job Design, the advantages and disadvantages; and work organisation

Focus on:
Job Design Decisions Trends in Job Design Work Measurement Basic Compensation Systems and Financial Incentive Plans

Aim is for you to be able to explain the impact of job design on an individual, group and an organisation.

Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007

Job design
Definition
The way in which we structure each individuals jobs, the workplace or environment in which they work and their interface with the technology or facilities they use.

Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007

Elements of Job Design


Who
Mental and physical characteristics of the work force

What

Where
Geographic locale of the organization; location of work areas

When

Why
Organizational reason for the job; objectives and motivation of the worker

How

Tasks to be performed

Time of day; time of occurrence in the work flow

Method of performance and motivation

Ultimate Job Structure


Nigel Aquilano & Jacobs, 2001 Robert Johnston, 2007 Chase, Slack, Stuart Chambers &

The Objectives of Job Design


quality speed

dependability
Job design impacts on flexibility cost health and safety quality of working life

Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007

Behavioural Considerations of Job Design

Degree of
Specialization

Ultimate Job Structure

Job Enrichment
(vs. Enlargement)

Nigel Aquilano & Jacobs, 2001 Robert Johnston, 2007 Chase, Slack, Stuart Chambers &

Sociotechnical Systems

Process Technology Needs

Task Variety Skill Variety Feedback Task Identity Task Autonomy

Worker/Group Needs

Nigel Aquilano & Jacobs, 2001 Robert Johnston, 2007 Chase, Slack, Stuart Chambers &

The Behavioural Approach


Techniques of job design
Combining tasks Forming natural work units Establishing client relationships Vertical loading Opening feedback channels

Core job characteristics


Skill variety Task identity Task significance

Mental states
Meaningfulness' of the job Responsibility and control over the way the job is done

Performance
Motivation Quality of work Turnover

Autonomy Feedback

Level of understanding of the results of efforts

Absenteeism

Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007

The Behavioural Approach


Techniques of job design Combining tasks Forming natural work units Establishing client relationships Vertical loading Opening feedback channels Core job characteristics Skill variety Task identity Task significance Mental states Experienced meaningfulness of the work Experienced responsibility for outcomes of the work Knowledge of the actual results of the work activity Performance and personal outcomes High internal work motivation High quality work performance High satisfaction with the work Low absenteeism and turnover

Autonomy
Feedback

Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007

The Behavioural Approach


More tasks which give increased responsibility autonomy or decisionmaking Job enrichment

Original job tasks More tasks of the same type

Job enlargement

Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007

The ergonomics approach in the office environment


Ergonomics approach

How the person interfaces with the physical aspects of his or her workplace

How the person interfaces with the environmental conditions prevalent in his or her immediate working area

Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007

Division of labour principles (A. Smith)


Promotes faster learning Makes automation easier Ensures non-productive work is reduced

Advantages

Leads to monotony Can result in physical injury Disadvantages Is not particularly robust Can reduce flexibility

Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007

Work Methods
A Production Process

Workers Interacting with Other Workers

Ultimate Ultimate Job Job Design Design

Worker at a Fixed Workplace

Worker Interacting with Equipment

Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007

Work Study (Taylorism)


Work study
A generic term for those techniques which are used in the examination of human work in all its contexts and which lead systematically to the investigation of all the factors which affect the efficiency and economy of the situations being reviewed in order to effect improvement.

Method study
Method study is the systematic recording and critical examination of existing and proposed methods of doing work, as a means of developing and applying easier and more effective methods and reducing costs
Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007

Work measurement
The application of techniques designed to establish the time for a qualified worker to carry out a specified job at a defined level of performance

Work Measurement
Work measurement is a process of analysing jobs for the purpose of setting time standards. Why use it? Schedule work and allocate capacity Motivate and measure work performance Evaluate performance

Provide benchmarks

Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007

Work Sampling
Use inference to make statements about work activity based on a sample of the activity Ratio Delay Activity time percentage for workers or equipment

Performance Measurement Relates work time to output (performance index) Time Standards Standard task times

Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007

Advantage of Work Sampling over Time Study


Several work sampling studies may be conducted simultaneously by one observer The observer need not be a trained analyst unless the purpose of the study is to determine a time standard No timing devices are required Work of a long cycle time may be studied with fewer observer hours
Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007

Advantage of Work Sampling over Time Study (cont.)


The duration of the study is longer, which minimizes effects of short-period variations The study may be temporarily delayed at any time with little effect

Because work sampling needs only instantaneous observations (made over a longer period), the operator has less chance to influence the findings by changing work method
Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007

Standard performance is the rate of

output which a qualified worker will


achieve without over-exertion, as an average over the working day, provided

they are motivated to apply themselves


to their work.

Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007

Motivation Factors in Job Performance


External factors
Demanding, interesting work Rewards Participation and selfdirection

Job performance

Internal Factors
Personal motivation Personal ability

Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007

A qualified worker is one who is


accepted as having the necessary physical attributes, intelligence, skill,

education and knowledge to perform the


task to satisfactory standards of safety, quality, and quantity.

Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007

Basic Compensation Systems


Hourly Pay
Straight Salary Piece Rate

Commissions

Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007

Financial Incentive Plans


Individual and Small-Group Plans

Output measures Quality measures Pay for knowledge

Organization-wide Plans

Profit-sharing Gain-sharing Bonus based on controllable costs or units of output Involve participative management

Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007

Pay-for-Performance
Paying employees based on their performance - improvements in productivity and quality Pay-for-performance will become increasingly common components of performance management strategies and systems.

Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007

Emphasis in Job Design


Emphasis on managerial control
Staff treated as a cost Division of labour Scientific management Ergonomics Behavioural approaches Empowerment

Emphasis on commitment and engagement of staff

Team working
Staff treated as a resource
Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007

Flexible working

Trends in Job Design

Quality control as part of the worker's job


Cross-training workers to perform multi-skilled jobs Employee involvement and team approaches to designing and organizing work

Informating ordinary workers through telecommunication networks and computers

Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007 Chase, Aquilano & Jacobs, 2001

Trends in Job Design (cont.)


Extensive use of temporary workers

Automation of heavy manual work Organizational commitment to providing meaningful and rewarding jobs for all employees

Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007 Chase, Aquilano & Jacobs, 2001

A Flow Model of Interpersonal communication


Stimulus Decoding Attention Ideas

Decoding
Attention Perception Retention

Perception
Retention

Putting into words


Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007

Putting into words

Summary: The Elements of Job Design


Environment in the workplace: Ergonomics, Human factors, health and safety (temperature, light, noise)
Technology available and usage (Ergonomic workplace design): Repetitive strain injury (RSI), Anthropometric data (e.g. size of people) The tasks allocated to each person in the operation: Division of labour

Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007

Summary: The Elements of Job Design (cont.)


The best method of performing each job: Scientific management, work measurement Time it takes and how many people are needed: Qualified worker, level and standard of performance

Maintain staff commitment, communication and motivation: Communication, Job rotation, Job enlargement (more tasks to do), Job enrichment (involves decision making), empowerment, team-working and flexible working.
Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007

Job Design and Work Organisation

The End
Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers & Robert Johnston, 2007