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Mean = The sum of the values divided by the number of values Median = The middle value of a data set when the data is ordered from smallest to largest Mode = The value that occurs most frequently

Statistical Definitions

Range = spread of the data - largest value minus the smallest value

Variance = A measure of the typical squared difference of measurements from the mean of the data

Standard Deviation () = The square root of the Variance. This measure is in the same units as the mean

Sample Size Mean Range n = The total number of values x= x

Variance

Standard Deviation

s=

s2

Types of distribution

Types of Distribution

Types of Variation

Effects of Variation

To carry out a manufacturing processing step, a combination of people, equipment, materials, environment and methods are required With the process depending on all these factors, there will always be some degree of variation in the process For highly complex IC manufacturing, individual process variation must be minimal, controlled, and well understood Statistical Process Control (SPC) using statistical techniques to provide the information (numbers) required to achieve process stability and reduce variation

1. The Process

Materials Method Manpower

Output

Machine

Measurement Environment

3. Action on Process

4. Action on output

Control Charts

A control chart is an on-line SPC technique used to detect the occurrence of shifts in process performance so that investigation and corrective action can take place The control chart is a trend chart with statistically determined control limits A process is stable of it has a predictable distribution and is random in behaviour over time

Control Charts

The control chart consists of:

A centre line which corresponds to the mean value of the characteristic corresponding to an in-control state An Upper Control Limit (UCL) A Lower Control Limit

3

Centre line

The control limits are selected so that if the process is in control all the sample points will plot between them

Lower control limit

Time

1. Gather data a) Decide Size, Freq, No. of subgroups b) Get raw data c) Calculate Avg. and Range d) Select scales e) Plot data 2. Calculate control limits a) Calculate Avg. Range and Process Avg. b) Calculate Prelim Control limits (NB < spec) c) Set up control charts

Control chart

Variation

You need to know the sources of variation :

Common cause natural (random) variations that are part Of the stable process vs Special Cause unnatural (non-random) variations that are not Part of the stable system

Tweaking a stable system will always increase variation Do not adjust system for a special cause work to reduce overall variation

Process quality characteristics such as defects or defect density are referred to as attributes The probability of a defect occurring is modelled by the Poisson Distribution

e-e cx P(x) = x! x = number of defects c = constant >0

The control chart (known as the c-chart), with +/- 3 control limits, :UCL = c +3 Centre line = c LCL = c -3 = c -3 c = c +3 c

Example

The inspection of 25 wafers yields 37 defects. Set up a c-chart for this situation. c = 37/25 = 1.48 UCL = c +3 c LCL = c -3 c = 5.13 = -2.17

In many cases quality characteristics are expressed as specific numeric measurements, rather than expressing the probability of the presence of defects Examples include:

thickness Etch rate resistivity

Say, for example you want to measure the thickness of a metal Layer on a wafer Over the surface of the wafer the thickness of the metal will vary Measure the thickness at a number of points on the wafer 1

2 6 7 3 8 9 4 5

X Chart

Suppose m samples of size n are collected: True mean / grand average UCL = x +3 /n Centre line = x LCL = x -3 /n

x = x1 + x2 + .. + xm m

S chart

For m samples of size n, the average standard deviation is: 1 s= m

m

si

i=1

UCL = s +3s k

Centre line = s

LCL = s -3s k k is a constant that depends on sample size

Sheet Resistance

Resistance of a square slab of material RAB = L/A t => R = L/t*W Let L = W (square slab) => RAB = /t = Rs ohm / square

A w

B

RAB = ZRsh Z = L/W

Typical sheet resistance values for materials are very well characterised

Layer

Rs (Ohm / Sq

Aluminium N Diffusion

Silicide Polysilicon N-transistor Channel P-transistor Channel

0.03 10 50

24 15 - 100 104 2.5 x 104

Etch Rate = x1 + x2 + x3 +.. xn n

Uniformity =

Max - Min

Max + Min

* 100%

Types of behaviour

Types of behaviour

Types of behaviour

Types of behaviour

1. 1 or more points outside the control limits 2. 2 or 3 consecutive points outside the 2sigma warning limits 3. 4 or 5 consecutive points outside the 1sigma limits 4. A run of 8 points on one side of the centre

Rules

1. 6 points in a row steadily increasing or decreasing 2. 15 points above the centre line (1 sigma) 3. 14 points alternatively up and down 4. 8 points in a row either side of the centre line outside (1 sigma) 5. An unusual pattern 6. One or more points near a warning or control limit

Conclusions

SPC is the mainstay of process control in a large number of industries Founded upon principles of statistical analysis of variation Aims to control a process using samples of a reduced number of the production population.

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