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Statistical Definitions

Mean = The sum of the values divided by the number of values Median = The middle value of a data set when the data is ordered from smallest to largest Mode = The value that occurs most frequently

Statistical Definitions
Range = spread of the data - largest value minus the smallest value
Variance = A measure of the typical squared difference of measurements from the mean of the data

Standard Deviation () = The square root of the Variance. This measure is in the same units as the mean

Symbols and Formulae

Sample Size Mean Range n = The total number of values x= x

R = Max - Min s2 = (x x)2 n-1


Standard Deviation



The Normal Distribution

The important parameters

Types of distribution

Types of Distribution

Types of Variation

Effects of Variation

Controlling the process (special causes of variation)

The capability of the process (common causes of variation)

Statistical Process Control

To carry out a manufacturing processing step, a combination of people, equipment, materials, environment and methods are required With the process depending on all these factors, there will always be some degree of variation in the process For highly complex IC manufacturing, individual process variation must be minimal, controlled, and well understood Statistical Process Control (SPC) using statistical techniques to provide the information (numbers) required to achieve process stability and reduce variation

A process control system

1. The Process
Materials Method Manpower



Measurement Environment

3. Action on Process

2. Information about performance

4. Action on output

Control Charts
A control chart is an on-line SPC technique used to detect the occurrence of shifts in process performance so that investigation and corrective action can take place The control chart is a trend chart with statistically determined control limits A process is stable of it has a predictable distribution and is random in behaviour over time

Control Charts
The control chart consists of:
A centre line which corresponds to the mean value of the characteristic corresponding to an in-control state An Upper Control Limit (UCL) A Lower Control Limit

Upper control limit

Centre line

The control limits are selected so that if the process is in control all the sample points will plot between them
Lower control limit

Sample point number


Making a control chart

1. Gather data a) Decide Size, Freq, No. of subgroups b) Get raw data c) Calculate Avg. and Range d) Select scales e) Plot data 2. Calculate control limits a) Calculate Avg. Range and Process Avg. b) Calculate Prelim Control limits (NB < spec) c) Set up control charts

Control chart

You need to know the sources of variation :

Common cause natural (random) variations that are part Of the stable process vs Special Cause unnatural (non-random) variations that are not Part of the stable system
Tweaking a stable system will always increase variation Do not adjust system for a special cause work to reduce overall variation

Control Charts for Attributes

Process quality characteristics such as defects or defect density are referred to as attributes The probability of a defect occurring is modelled by the Poisson Distribution
e-e cx P(x) = x! x = number of defects c = constant >0

For Poisson Distribution, c is both mean and variance

Control Charts for Attributes

The control chart (known as the c-chart), with +/- 3 control limits, :UCL = c +3 Centre line = c LCL = c -3 = c -3 c = c +3 c

If c is not known it can be estimated from an average number of defects in a sample ( c )

The inspection of 25 wafers yields 37 defects. Set up a c-chart for this situation. c = 37/25 = 1.48 UCL = c +3 c LCL = c -3 c = 5.13 = -2.17

< 0 so set LCL to zero

Control Charts for Variables

In many cases quality characteristics are expressed as specific numeric measurements, rather than expressing the probability of the presence of defects Examples include:
thickness Etch rate resistivity

Resistivity and Uniformity

Say, for example you want to measure the thickness of a metal Layer on a wafer Over the surface of the wafer the thickness of the metal will vary Measure the thickness at a number of points on the wafer 1

2 6 7 3 8 9 4 5

E.g. 9-point 4-point probe measurement

X Chart
Suppose m samples of size n are collected: True mean / grand average UCL = x +3 /n Centre line = x LCL = x -3 /n

x = x1 + x2 + .. + xm m

S chart
For m samples of size n, the average standard deviation is: 1 s= m


UCL = s +3s k

Centre line = s
LCL = s -3s k k is a constant that depends on sample size

Sheet Resistance
Resistance of a square slab of material RAB = L/A t => R = L/t*W Let L = W (square slab) => RAB = /t = Rs ohm / square
A w

RAB = ZRsh Z = L/W

Typical sheet resistance values for materials are very well characterised


Rs (Ohm / Sq

Aluminium N Diffusion
Silicide Polysilicon N-transistor Channel P-transistor Channel

0.03 10 50
24 15 - 100 104 2.5 x 104

Typical Sheet Resistances for 5m Technology

Etch / Dep Rate and Uniformity

Etch Rate = x1 + x2 + x3 +.. xn n

Uniformity =

Max - Min
Max + Min

* 100%

Types of behaviour

Types of behaviour

Types of behaviour

Types of behaviour

Rules (Western Electrical)

1. 1 or more points outside the control limits 2. 2 or 3 consecutive points outside the 2sigma warning limits 3. 4 or 5 consecutive points outside the 1sigma limits 4. A run of 8 points on one side of the centre

1. 6 points in a row steadily increasing or decreasing 2. 15 points above the centre line (1 sigma) 3. 14 points alternatively up and down 4. 8 points in a row either side of the centre line outside (1 sigma) 5. An unusual pattern 6. One or more points near a warning or control limit

SPC is the mainstay of process control in a large number of industries Founded upon principles of statistical analysis of variation Aims to control a process using samples of a reduced number of the production population.