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Best utilisation of resources : motivation ensures best and efficient utilisation of all types of resourecs.utilisation of resourses is possible to their fullest extent if the man is introduced to contribute their efforts towards attaining organisational goals
Will to conrtibute :it result in a feeling of involment to present his better performance .thus motivation bridges the gap between capacity to work and willingness to work.

Reduction in labour problems : motivation helps to reduce labour problems like labour turn over , absenteeism ,indiscipline , grievances , etc. because their real wages increase by the motivational plans.
Sizeable increase in production and productivity: when motivational properly,people try to put efforts to produce more thus increasing their efficiency and as a result of this the general production and property of the organisational increases. Improvement upon skill and knowledge: all the members will try to be as efficient as possible and will try to improve will try to improve upon their skill and knowledge.

1. Motivation is a psychological Concept :- Motivation should come from inside
each individual. There are two desiring factors in motivation-(a) Fundamental needs, such as food, clothes and shelter and (b) Ego-satisfaction including self-esleem, recognition from others, opportunities for achievements, selfdevelopment and self actualization which act as powerful though unconscious, motivator of behaviour. Inner motivation can be more decisur for behaviour than any external influence.

2. Motivation is based on needs: needs may be consicously or unconsciously felt.needs may be (A)fundamental needs such as food, clothing, shelter,\etc.(b)ego-satisfaction needs such as self dependent ,self actualisation. 3. Goals are Motivators:- Goals and motives are inseparable. Man works to achieve the goals. A soon as the goal is achieved he would be no longer interested in work. Therefore, it is very essential for the management to know his goal to push him to work.

Types of motivation


Positive motivation
Positive motivation is the type of motivation a person feels when he expects a certain reward. An example of Positive motivation is when a father tells his sun, "if you studied well and got high grades i will buy you the new play station ". these may be financial and non financial.

Negative motivation
Negative motivation is the type of feeling a person gets when he expects punishment. An Example of negative motivation could be telling your child "if you didn't study, i wont let you travel this summer

Principles of motivation
The important principles of motivation are: Principle of participation It is one of the most important principle of motivation that people in the organization should be induced to participate in decision-making process in matters concerning them. Principle of communication The people in the organization must be informed about the matters concerning the result or objectives of the organization because the more a person knows about a matter, the more interest and concern he will develop.

Principles of motivation

Principle of recogniton
People will be motivated to work hard if they get continuing recognition for their efforts.

Principle of delegation of authority

Giving people authority to make their own decision gives them a vested interest in the result they accomplish and they feel that they are a part of the organization.

Principle of individuality
Everyone should be treated differently in a way that they all feel important for the organization.

Principle of guidance
The job of the management is to guide his subordinates towards the attainment of goals. The managers should give suggestions instead of orders.

Principles of motivation
Principle of confidence
The management should show confidence in its subordinates. This will enter confidence in them.

Human needs
Primary needs
These are the basic needs and importance for the survival of man . these needs are universal though their intensity may differ, some of the primary needs like food, water, sleep, air to breathe, social environment influences the needs.

Secondary needs
Such needs are related to mind and spirit 1) Social needs: man is a social animal and wants
to live in the society in a respectable manner and likes to maintain his social status. he always takes it in mind what others think about him

2) Egoistic needs: these needs are related to the ego of the individual depend upon the nature of the person.he assesses his own value in his view i.e. what he thinks about himself is the main source of these needs.


Physiological needs These are the basic human needs including food clothing shelter and other necessities of life. Once these are satisfied they no longer motivate the man. Safety needs These include economic security, protection from physical dangers. Social needs Need for love, affection, emotional needs, warmth and friendship. Ego ego or self esteem, self respect, self confidence, recognition. Self actualization needs Desire for personal achievement of his life.

This theory indicates There are five levels of needs All these needs are arranged in a hierarchy Once a need is satisfied, the next level will emerge as the depressed need seeking to be satisfied. The physiological and security needs are finite but the needs of higher order are infinite and are likely to be dominant in persons at higher levels in the organization. Maslow suggest that various levels are interdependent and overlapping


It has been proved that there is a lack of hierarchical structure of needs as suggested by Maslow. some people may be deprived of lower level of needs but strive for self actualization. There is lack of direct cause and effect relationship between need and behavior Sometimes people are not aware of their own needs. Measurement of satisfaction of needs is not possible