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Khoa KHOA HC VT LIU

VT L LASER

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Khoa KHOA HC VT LIU
VT L LASER
CHNG TRNH MN HC VT L LASER
Chng 1: C s ng hc ca laser
Chng 2: L thuyt v h cng hng quang hc
Chng 3: S lan truyn ca chm laser
Chng 4: Cc phng php to mi trng mt o ln trong my pht
quang lng t
Chng 5: Cc tnh cht ca chm laser
Chng 6: Cc loi laser
Chng 7: ng dng ca bc x laser

Khoa KHOA HC VT LIU
VT L LASER
CHNG TRNH MN HC VT L LASER
Ti liu tham kho

1. Vt l cht rn, L Khc Bnh v Nguyn Nht Khanh, Nh xut bn i hc Quc gia Tp. H
Ch Minh, 2002.
2. Quang ph nguyn t v ng dng, Nguyn Vn n, Nh xut bn i hc Quc gia Tp.
H Ch Minh, 2002.
3. C s k thut Laser, Trn c Hn v Nguyn Minh Hin, Nh xut bn gio dc,
2001.
4. Nhng ng dng mi nht ca Laser, Ngy Hu Tm, Nh xut bn Khoa hc v K
thut, 2003.
5. Vt l Laser, Trn Tun v Nguyn Hu Ch, Nh xut bn i hc Quc gia Tp. H
Ch Minh, 2002.
6. Laser Physics, L. V. Tarasov, MIR Publishers, 1983.
7. Principles of Lasers, Orazio Svelto and David C. Hanna, Plenum Press.
Khoa KHOA HC VT LIU
VT L LASER
Chng 1: C s ng hc ca Laser

1. Tng quan v c s vt l ca laser
2. Cu to ca mt my pht laser
3. iu kin lm vic ca my pht laser
4. Ngng pht
5. Ch lm vic ca laser
6. Ngng bm
7. iu kin t kch
Khoa KHOA HC VT LIU
VT L LASER
1. TNG QUAN v C S VT L CA LASER
Chng 1: C s ng hc ca Laser
Khuch i nh sng bng bc x cng bc
Khoa KHOA HC VT LIU
VT L LASER
Chng 1: C s ng hc ca Laser
Lch s pht trin ca nh sng laser
1. TNG QUAN v C S VT L CA LASER
Khoa KHOA HC VT LIU
VT L LASER
Chng 1: C s ng hc ca Laser
1. TNG QUAN v C S VT L CA LASER
Khoa KHOA HC VT LIU
VT L LASER
Chng 1: C s ng hc ca Laser
1. TNG QUAN v C S VT L CA LASER
Khoa KHOA HC VT LIU
VT L LASER
Chng 1: C s ng hc ca Laser
1. TNG QUAN v C S VT L CA LASER
Khoa KHOA HC VT LIU
VT L LASER
Chng 1: C s ng hc ca Laser
1. TNG QUAN v C S VT L CA LASER
Khoa KHOA HC VT LIU
VT L LASER
Chng 1: C s ng hc ca Laser
1. TNG QUAN v C S VT L CA LASER
Khoa KHOA HC VT LIU
VT L LASER
Chng 1: C s ng hc ca Laser
1. TNG QUAN v C S VT L CA LASER
Theo l thuyt lng t, cc nguyn t ch tn ti nhng trng thi nng lng gin on.
Trng thi ng vi nng lng cc tiu gi l trng thi n nh hay trng thi c bn.
Trng thi ng vi nng lng ln hn trng thi c bn gi l trng thi kch thch.
Trong iu kin bnh thng, nguyn t trng thi bnh thng v tun theo phn b Boltzmann.
Nu mt s trng thi kch thch c cng mt gi tr nng lng nhng trng thi suy bin.
S trng thi ng vi cng mt mc nng lng gi l suy bin hay cn gi l trng lng
thng k ca mc, ki hiu l g.
Di tc dng ca bn ngoi, cc nguyn t s dch chuyn gia cc trng thi. Vi mi dch
chuyn nguyn t s hp th hay bc x mt lng t nng lng v tun theo nh lut bo tan
nng lng.
Tn s ca lng t bc x hoc hp th l

E E E
k i
A
=

= e
Khoa KHOA HC VT LIU
VT L LASER
Chng 1: C s ng hc ca Laser
1. TNG QUAN v C S VT L CA LASER
C s l thuyt ca Laser chnh l tin ca Einstein (1917): khi c tng tc gia nh sng
vi cc nguyn t:
1. Qa trnh hp th mt lng t nh sng
2. Bc x t pht
3. Bc x cng bc
Chiu vo nguyn t mt chm bc x c mt nng lng (). Xt qu trnh hp th v bc
x nh sng trong mt nguyn t vi hai trng thi c nng lng E
1
v E
2
(E
2
> E
1
).
Khoa KHOA HC VT LIU
VT L LASER
Chng 1: C s ng hc ca Laser
1. TNG QUAN v C S VT L CA LASER
E
1

E
2

Trng thi cui
E
1

E
2

E
1

E
2

Trng thi u
Sau khi hp th photon, nguyn t chuyn ln trng thi kch thch E
2
> E
1
.
1. Qa trnh hp th
Khoa KHOA HC VT LIU
VT L LASER
Chng 1: C s ng hc ca Laser
1. TNG QUAN v C S VT L CA LASER
E
1

E
2

Trng thi cui
E
1

E
2

E
1

E
2

Trng thi u
Nguyn t b kch thch c th chuyn v trng thi c nng
lng thp hn mt cch t pht bng cc pht ra photon c cng
tn s vi photon kch thch.
Cc chuyn di t pht l ngu nhin nn bc x t pht
khng c tnh kt hp (photon pht ra truyn theo phng ty
v pha ty ).
2. Qa trnh bc x t pht
Khoa KHOA HC VT LIU
VT L LASER
Chng 1: C s ng hc ca Laser
1. TNG QUAN v C S VT L CA LASER
E
1

E
2

Trng thi cui
E
1

E
2

Nguyn t trng thi kch thch, di tc dng ca trng
bc x (photon kch thch) c th chuyn tr v trng thi c
trng thi c nng lng thp s photon bc x s ln hn s
photon kch thch nh sng c khuch i.
Trong bc x cng bc, photon pht ra c cng tn s, cng
phng truyn v cng pha vi photon kch thch.
3. Qa trnh bc x cng bc
E
1

E
2

Trng thi u
Khoa KHOA HC VT LIU
VT L LASER
Chng 1: C s ng hc ca Laser
1. TNG QUAN v C S VT L CA LASER
nh lng qu trnh dch chuyn khi nim vn tc ca qu trnh. Albert Einstein xc nh
h s ca tng qu trnh v ch ra rng tc ca cc qu trnh ny c lin quan vi nhau.


1. Qa trnh hp th
Tc ca qu trnh hp th t l thun vi s nguyn t N
1
trng thi c nng lng thp E
1
v mt
nng lng () ca bc x ti cc nguyn t
( ) v
1 12
12
N B
dt
dN
=
B
12
l h s Einstein i vi qu trnh hp th, c th nguyn cm
3
.J
-1
.s
-2
.
Mt nng lng () hay mt ph khi ca bc x tn s dch chuyn (l phn nng
lng cha trong mt n v th tch ca chm bc x trong mt n v qung ph) c th nguyn
l J.cm
-3
.Hz
-1
hay J. cm
3
.s.
Nu mt photon cng ln th s hat ng hp th cng ln.
Khoa KHOA HC VT LIU
VT L LASER
Chng 1: C s ng hc ca Laser
1. TNG QUAN v C S VT L CA LASER
2. Qa trnh bc x t pht
Tc ca qu trnh bc x t pht khng ph thuc vo mt nng lng ca bc x m ch t l thun vi
s nguyn t N
2
trng thi kch thch.
2 12
21
N A
dt
dN
=
A
21
l h s Einstein i vi qu trnh bc x t pht, c th nguyn s
-1
.
Khoa KHOA HC VT LIU
VT L LASER
Chng 1: C s ng hc ca Laser
1. TNG QUAN v C S VT L CA LASER
3. Qa trnh bc x cng bc
Tc ca qu trnh bc x cng bc t l thun vi mt nng lng ca bc x v s nguyn t N
2

trng thi kch thch.
( ) v
2 21
21
N B
dt
dN
=
B
21
l h s Einstein i vi qu trnh bc x cng bc.
Nu mt photon kch thch cng ln th s photon bc x ra cng nhiu.
Khoa KHOA HC VT LIU
VT L LASER
Chng 1: C s ng hc ca Laser
1. TNG QUAN v C S VT L CA LASER
Trong trng thi cn bng nhit, s cc chuyn di i
ln phi bng s cc chuyn di i xung
( ) ( )
( )
21
2
1
12
21
2 21 2 21 1 12
B
N
N
B
A
N B N A N B

=
+ =
v
v v
Theo nh lut phn b Boltzmann
( )
( )
2 1 21 21 12
21
2
1
12
21
2
1
2
1
2
1
, ,
2 1
g g A A B B B
T
B e
g
g
B
A
e
g
g
e
g
g
N
N
T k
h
T k
h
T k
E E
B
B B
= = = =

=
= =

v
v
v
v
( )
1
1

=
T k
h
B
e
B
A
v
v
Theo nh lut Planck
( )
3
3
3
3
8
1
1 8
c
h
B
A
e
c
h
T k
h
B
v t v t
v
v
=

=
T s xc sut ca qu trnh bc x t pht v
cng bc l
( )
1 =
T k
h
B
e
B
A
v
v
h << k
B
T: qu trnh bc x cng bc c xc sut
ln hn nhiu so vi qu trnh bc x t pht.
Quan h th 2 ca cc h s Einstein
Quan h th 1 ca cc h s Einstein
Khoa KHOA HC VT LIU
VT L LASER
Chng 1: C s ng hc ca Laser
1. TNG QUAN v C S VT L CA LASER
rng v ng bao ca vch ph
Cc mc nng lng ca nguyn t c rng nht nh ngay khi khng c tc ng bn ngai. rng ca
mc nng lng c xc nh bng nguyn l bt nh Heisneberg v ph thuc vo thi gian sng ca nguyn
t trng thi .
h E
k k
> A t .
Thi gian sng ca trng thi c xc nh bng tng xc sut ca nhng dch chuyn t pht xung trng
thi thp i, tc l xc xut ngho ha ca mc k.

= = A
>i k
ik
k
k
h
h
E
t
rng ca mc nng lng cng ln nu tui th ca trng thi cng nh.
Mc siu bn c rng nh.
Trng thi c bn c tui th ln nn c rng rt nh.
Cc mc kch thch c rng kh ln.
Do c s nhe ha mc nng lng, ngay khi khng b kch thch, nhng vch ph bc x hay hp th ca
nguyn t cng c rng nht nh.
Khoa KHOA HC VT LIU
VT L LASER
Chng 1: C s ng hc ca Laser
1. TNG QUAN v C S VT L CA LASER
rng v ng bao ca vch ph
rng xc nh v tn s gia hai mc nng lng b nhe ha c xc nh bi rng ca cc mc nng
lng
( )
k i ki
E E A + A = A

1
e
rng vch ph ca nguyn t ring r v khng b kch thch gi l rng t nhin ca vch ph.

ik

E
k

E
i

( )
k i ik
E E A + A +

1
e
Khoa KHOA HC VT LIU
VT L LASER
Chng 1: C s ng hc ca Laser
1. TNG QUAN v C S VT L CA LASER
rng v ng bao ca vch ph
Da vo th nng lng ca h c th xc nh nh tnh c cng v rng ca vch ph.
Mc 1 ng vi trng thi c bn nn c E
1
= 0. Gi s xc sut dch chuyn 21 rt ln tui th mc 2
nh rng E
2
ln. Mc 3 c rng E
3
nh hn.
Ph ca s 3 mc gm 3 vch vi tn s
32
,
21
, v
31
.
Vch 2-1 c cng ln nht v xc sut dch chuyn ln. Vch 2-1 kh rng v ngho ha ca mc 2 ln.
Cng 2 vch 3-2 v 3-1 nh v xc sut dch chuyn nh nhng khc nhau v rng. ngho ha ca
nhng mc 2 v 3 ln hn nhiu so vi mc 3 v 1.

1
2
3

32

31

21

J()
Khoa KHOA HC VT LIU
VT L LASER
2. CU TO CA MT MY PHT LASER
Laser my pht lng t cng quang hc gm 03 b phn chnh:
1. Mi trng hot cht
2. Bung cng hng
3. B phn kch thch
Chng 1: C s ng hc ca Laser
Khoa KHOA HC VT LIU
2. CU TO CA MT MY PHT LASER
1. Mi trng hot cht
L mi trng vt cht c kh nng khuch i nh sng i qua n.
a. Hot cht l cht kh Laser kh
Kh n nguyn t: ArI, XeI, NeI.
Ion kh n nguyn t: ArII, KrII..
Kh phn t: CO
2
, CO, N
2
..
Hn hp kh n nguyn t: He Ne
Hn hp kh phn t: CO
2
N
2
He, CO N
2
H
2
O

b. Hot cht l cht rn Laser rn
Tinh th hay thy tinh c pha trn thm cc ion nguyn t him: Eu
3+
, Cr
3+
. Laser ruby: Cr
3+
pha tp vo
tinh th Al
2
O
3
.

c. Hot cht l bn dn Laser bn dn: GaAs, PbS, PbTe

d. Hot cht l cht lng Laser lng
Pereridin Eu (BA)
4
ha tan trong dung mi ru ethol + methol v pha tp thm ion nguyn t him Eu
3+
, Nd
3+
..
Chng 1: C s ng hc ca Laser
VT L LASER
Khoa KHOA HC VT LIU
2. CU TO CA MT MY PHT LASER
2. Bung cng hng
Gm 02 gng phn x. Mt gng c h s phn x rt cao v gng cn li c h s phn x thp hn tia
laser thot ra ngoi.
Mt trong cc gng c th c thay bng lng knh hay cch t.
Vai tr ca bung cng hng l lm cho bc x do mi trng hat cht pht ra c th truyn qua mi trng
hat cht nhiu ln bc x ny c khuch i nhiu ln.

3. B phn kch thch hay bm
Cung cp nng lng to s nghch o tch ly trong hai mc nng lng no ca mi
trng hat cht v duy tr s hat ng ca laser.
Kch thch bng nh sng bm quang hc.
Kch thch bng va chm in t: nng lng in t c gia tc trong in trng c truyn cho cc nguyn
t trong mi trng hat cht thng qua qu trnh va chm.
Chng 1: C s ng hc ca Laser
VT L LASER
Khoa KHOA HC VT LIU
3. IU KIN LM VIC CA MY PHT LASER
Khi dng bm quang hc, nh sng bm tng tc vi cc h nguyn
t ca mi trng hat cht chuyn chng ln trng thi kch thch.
Xt qu trnh hp th v bc x xy ra ti lp mng dx ca mi
trng hat cht. S bin thin cng sut nh sng ti lp dx ca mi
trng vi tit din ly lm n v:
Chng 1: C s ng hc ca Laser
VT L LASER
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) v v
v v
v
v
g B
g B
dx h N I
dx h N I
I I dP
12 12
21 21
12 12 1
'
21 21 2
'
= I
= I
I =
I =
=
N
1
, N
2
l tch ly ca cc h nguyn t mc 1 v 2.

12
,
21
l xc xut hp th v bc x cng bc.
g () l hm chun ha c trng cho s m rng vch
ph bc x hay hp th.
x = 0 dx x = l
( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 21 12
12 1 21 2
, g g
dx g h B N B N dP
= =
=
v v
v v v ( ) ( ) ( )V g h B N B N P v v v
12 1 21 2
=
Bin thin cng sut trong ton th tch V
bin thin cng sut l dng ~ nh sng i qua mi trng hot cht c khuch i ln cn iu kin
12 1 21 2 12 1 21 2
0 B N B N B N B N > >
iu kin nghch o tch ly
Khoa KHOA HC VT LIU
3. IU KIN LM VIC CA MY PHT LASER
Biu thc cng sut that khi bung cng hng P
l
khi gi thit cng sut vo l P
0
. nh sng i qua mi
trng dx l P:
Chng 1: C s ng hc ca Laser
VT L LASER
( )c P v =
K
v
l h s hp th ca mi trng hat cht.
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) v g
c
h
B N B N k
dx k
c
dx g h B N B N
P
dP
v
v
v v v
v
v
21 2 12 1
12 1 21 2
=
=

=
l k
l
e P P
v

=
0
nh sng khuch i P
l
> P
0
cn k
v
< 0.
iu kin nghch o tch ly nhit mi trng hat cht m. Trong cn bng nhit ng, tch ly
ca 2 mc tun theo phn b Boltzmann
0
1 2
1
2
1 2
1
2
1
2
21 1 2
< >
= =

T N N
e
g
g
N N e
g
g
N
N
T k
h
T k
E E
B B
v
Khoa KHOA HC VT LIU
4. NGNG PHT
iu kin c nghch o tch ly cha m bo c tia laser thot khi bng cng hng do bc x t hat
cht tuy c khuch i nhng cn chu cc mt mt trong bung cng hng.
Cc mt mt: nhiu x cc khu ca gng, phn x hay tn x.
Gi W l nng lng d tr c trong bung cng hng cng sut mt mt trong bung
Chng 1: C s ng hc ca Laser
VT L LASER

c
l thi gian tt bc x
Q l h s phm cht ca bung cng hng l i lng nghch o vi s mt mt.
iu kin c s pht tia laser
Du bng = trong iu kin trn gi l ngng pht ca laser.
Q
W W
dt
dW
P
c
e
t
= = =
'
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) v
v
e
v v v
v
g QB B
B
N N V W
Q
W
V g h B N B N P P
21 21
12
1 2
12 1 21 2
'
1

> =
> >
Khoa KHOA HC VT LIU
4. NGNG PHT
Dng mi lin h th nht ca cc h s Einstein
Chng 1: C s ng hc ca Laser
VT L LASER
iu kin ngng pht ph thuc vo phm cht
ca bung cng hng Q, s m rng vch ph g() v
h s Einstein B
21
.
Mt mt cng ln, Q cng nh th ngng pht cng
ln xy dng bung cng hng c mt mt nh.
Chn 2 mc nng lng c h s Einstein ln s lm
gim ngng pht.
M rng vch ph dng Lorentz m rng ng nht
( )
( ) v
v
g QB
N N g g
g QB g
g
N N
21
1 2 1 2
21 1
2
1 2
1
1

> =
>
( )
( )
2 2
0
2
1
v v v
v
t
v
A +
A
= g
rng vch ph,
0
tn s ti tm vch khi khng c
m rng. Trong gn ng lng cc in:
0
2
21
2
2
1
2
1 2
2
2
2
21
2
21
4
3
3
2
v
v
tt
t
A
=
~
r e
g
g
g
N N
g
r e
B
c

er
21
yu t ma trn ca lng cc in.
M rng vch ph dng Doppler m rng khng
ng nht
( ) ( ) ( )
0
2 1
2
21
2
2
1
2
1 2
2
2 1
0
2 1
2 ln
4
3
2 ln exp 2 ln
1
v
v t
tt
v
v v
v t
v
D
c
D D
r e
g
g
g
N N
g
A
|
.
|

\
|
=

A
=

Trong 2 dng m rng vch ph trn, iu kin nghch


o tch ly u t l thun vi rng vch vic
lm gim rng l cn thit cho hat ng ca my
pht laser.
Khoa KHOA HC VT LIU
5. CH LM VIC CA LASER
1. H nguyn t lm vic vi hai mc nng lng
Chng 1: C s ng hc ca Laser
VT L LASER
E
1
, N
1

E
2
, N
2

Khi khng c tc ng bn ngoi: N
1
> N
2

Khi c bm quang hc: N
1
gim, N
2
tng

Khi
0
1
2
1 2
= =
v
k
g
g
N N
H s hp th k

= 0 nn h nguyn t khng th hp th nh sng c na d qu trnh bm vn tip tc


khng th chuyn thm nguyn t t mc 1 2
khng c nghch o tch ly
khng th to nh sng laser.
Khoa KHOA HC VT LIU
5. CH LM VIC CA LASER
2. H nguyn t lm vic vi ba mc nng lng
Chng 1: C s ng hc ca Laser
VT L LASER
tn s nh sng bm khng qu n sc chn mc 3 c rng tng i ln.
Mc 2 l mc siu bn.
Khi c bm quang hc: dch chuyn 1 3.
Nguyn t khng lu mc 3 nn 3 2 (khng bc x) v xc sut khng bc x
32
ln (
32
>>
31
).
To c s nghch o mt tch ly 2 mc 2 v 1.
Do mc 2 v 3 rt gn nhau nn bc x t pht
31
rt gn bc x laser
21
nhiu lon bc x laser.
E
1
, N
1

E
2
, N
2

E
3
, N
3

Khoa KHOA HC VT LIU
5. CH LM VIC CA LASER
3. H nguyn t lm vic vi bn mc nng lng
Chng 1: C s ng hc ca Laser
VT L LASER
tn s nh sng bm khng qu n sc chn mc 4 c rng tng i ln.
Mc 3 l mc siu bn.
Khi c bm quang hc: dch chuyn 1 4.
Nguyn t khng lu mc 4 nn 4 3 (khng bc x).
Mc 2 gn mc 1 v c lin kt quang vi mc 4 bc x t pht 4 2 s qua qu trnh tch thot m chuyn
ngay xung mc 1.(
32
>>
31
).
To c s nghch o mt tch ly 2 mc 3 v 2.
Bc x laser
32
khng b nh hng bi bc x t pht
42
.
E
1
, N
1

E
3
, N
3

E
4
, N
4

E
2
, N
2

iu kin lm vic ca laser 4 mc:

43
>>
32
v
42


21
>>
42
v
12

32
~ 0