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Chapter 2: Carrier and Transport Phenomena

Questions provide us the understanding needed to design


semiconductor devices:

If there is an electric field present in the semiconductor, how do the
electrons and holes move? (Carrier Drift)

If there is a concentration gradient in the electron or hole density,
how do the carriers respond? (Carrier Diffusion)

Do electrons in the conduction band fall down into the valence band
and recombine with holes? (Generation and Recombination process)

Is it possible for electrons in the valence band to jump up into the
conduction band? What cause such processes?
(Generation and Recombination process)
1. CARRIER DRIFT

Objective:
An electric field applied to a semiconductor will produce a force on
electrons and holes so that they will experience a net acceleration
and net movement, provided there are available energy states in the
conduction and valence bands. This net movement of charge due to
an electric field is called drift. The net drift of charge gives rise to a
drift current .

What is drift velocity? (v
d
)

Is the velocity component that arises when an electric field, is
applied to a semiconductor. This electric field causes each electron
to experience a force -q due to the field and each electron will be
accelerated along the field (in the opposite direction).

What is mobility? (u)

The mobility is an important parameter of the semiconductor since it
describes how well a particle will move due to an electric field.
1. CARRIER DRIFT
According to quantum mechanics, electron have a free electron-like behavior and no
scattering occurs.
In real semiconductors, due to the imperfections, shown in the table, the electrons scatter,
which affects their transport (v, , o) properties.

Important Sources of Scattering in Semiconductors
Ionized impurities Due to dopants in the semiconductors
Phonons Due to lattice vibrations at finite temperatures
Alloy Random potential fluctuations
Interface roughness Important in heterostructure
Chemical impurities Due to unintentional impurities

Results in the Momentum & Energy of electrons will gradually lose coherence with the initial
state values. The average time it takes to lose coherence or memory of the initial state
properties is called (Mathiesons rule).





t
sc
= Scattering time or
Mean time between collisions for an electron or
Relaxation time or
Delay time

. 1 2
1 1 1
...
tot sc sc sc
t t t
= + +
3
a) Low Electric Fields
(v
d
= immediately before end of collision,
after collision the v
d
= 0)
v

= v
d
= v
ave.
= drift velocity
= ave. gain velocity
(either v
d n
or v
d p
)
e = electron
F = c = Electric Field
t
sc
= scattering time
m* = effective mass
(either m
n
* or m
p
*)
J = Current density
= drift current density
n = density of charge carrier
(either n
n
= n or n
p
= p)
o = conductivity of material
= resistivity of material = 1/o
= mobility effects (factor)
(either
n
or
p
)
. .
*
SC
d
e F
v
m
t
=
2
. . .
. .
*
SC
d
n e F
J n e v
m
t
= =
From Ohms Law,
J = o.F
2
. .
*
SC
n e
m
t
o =
From def. of mobility,
v
d
= - .F (the e
-
move in a direction
opposite to the electric field while the
holes move in the same direction)
.
*
SC
e
m
t
=
For general :

For holes :

For e- :

. .
*
SC
p
p
e
m
t
=
. .
*
SC
n
n
e
m
t
=
4
If both e
-
and holes are present
. . . .
n n p p
n e n e o = +
From Ohms Law,
J = o.F
( . . ).
n n p p
J e n n F = +
( . . )
n n p p
e n n = +
Example 1
The mobility of e
-
in pure Si at 300 K is 1500 cm
2
/ V.s. Calculate the relaxation time.
Given: m* = 0.26 m
0

Ans:
The time for pure Si:





*.
SC
m
e

t =
30 4 2
13
19
(0.26 0.91 10 ).(1500 10 / . )
2.2 10
1.6 10
x x kg x m V s
x s
x C

= =
5
Example 2
The mobility of e
-
in pure GaAs at 300 K is 8500 cm
2
/ V.s. Calculate the relaxation
time. If the GaAs sample is doped at N
d
= 10
17
cm
-3
, the mobility decrease to 5000
cm
2
/ V.s. Calculate the relaxation time due to ionized impurity scattering.
Given: Donor (n-type) doped = m* = 0.067 m
0

(Note:the mobility, decreases with the increase in temp. in order to ionized
the dopants because as the temp. rises the atoms in the crystal vibrate with
greater amplitude. In other words, the electrons scatter from the dopants from
these vibrations and mobility decreases)

Ans:
The time for pure GaAs:











1
*.
SC
m
e

t =
30 4 2
13
19
(0.067 0.91 10 ).(8500 10 / . )
3.24 10
1.6 10
x x kg x m V s
x s
x C

= =
The time for ionized impurity in GaAs (pure + impurity)
30 4 2
13
19
(0.067 0.91 10 ).(5000 10 / . )
1.9 10
1.6 10
x x kg x m V s
x s
x C

= =
2
*.
SC
m
e

t =
2 1
1 1 1
imp
SC SC SC
t t t
= + Mathiesons rule:
13
4.6 10
imp
SC
x s t

=
6
Example 3
Consider 2 semiconductor samples, Si and GaAs. Both materials are doped n-type at
N
d
= 10
17
cm
-3
. Assume 50% of the donors are ionized at 300 K. Calculate the
conductivity of the samples. Compare this conductivity to the conductivity of undoped
samples.
Given:Pure or undoped density of state (n) for Si n
i
= p
i
= n = p = 1.5 x 10
10
cm
-3

Pure or undoped density of state (n) for GaAs n
i
= p
i
= n = p = 1.84 x 10
6
cm
-3


n
(Si) = 1000 cm
2
/ V.s

p
(Si) = 350 cm
2
/ V.s

n
(GaAs) = 8000 cm
2
/ V.s

p
(GaAs) = 400 cm
2
/ V.s
Ans:












Conductivity for undoped GaAs:
( . . )
undoped i n i p
e n n o = +
19 10 3 2
(1.6 10 )(1.5 10 ){(1000 350)} / . x C x cm cm V s

= +
Conductivity for undoped Si:
19 6 3 2
(1.6 10 )(1.84 10 ){(8000 400)} / .
undoped
x C x cm cm V s o

= +
7
6 1
3.24 10 ( ) x cm

= O
9 1
2.47 10 ( ) x cm

= O
Conductivity for doped GaAs:
Cont. Example 3






















17 16 3
(50%) 10 50% 5 10
doped
n x x cm

= =
2
i
doped
doped
n
p
n
=
10 2
3 3
16
(1.5 10 )
4.5 10
5 10
x
x cm
x

= =
Conductivity for doped Si:
( . . )
doped n n p p
e n n o = +
17 3
(100%) 10
doped n
n n N cm

= = =
For Si & GaAs
For Si & GaAs
For Si (very small compared to n
doped
)
2
i
doped
doped
n
p
n
=
6 2
5 3
16
(1.84 10 )
6.77 10
5 10
x
x cm
x

= =
For GaAs (very small compared to n
doped
)
( . . )
doped n n p p
e n n o = +
1
64( ) cm

= O
1
8( ) cm

= O
19 16 1 3 1
(1.6 10 ){(5 10 )(1000 / . ) (4.5 10 )(350 / . )} x C x cm V s x cm V s

= +
19 16 1 5 1 1
(1.6 10 ){(5 10 )(8000 / . ) (6.77 10 )(400 / . ) } x C x cm V s x cm V s cm

= +
Almost zero
Almost zero
8
Example 4
Consider a Si semiconductor at T = 300 K with an impurity doping
concentration of N
d
= 10
16
cm
-3
and N
a
= 0. Calculate the drift current
density, J, for an applied field, c = 35 V/cm.
Given:
n
(Si) = 1350 cm
2
/ V.s

p
(Si) = 480 cm
2
/ V.s
Ans:
Since N
d
> N
a
, the semiconductor is n-type at room temperature, we
can assume complete ionization:
The n = n
n
~ N
d
= 10
16
cm
-3
and p = n
p
= 0









2 10 2
4 3
16
(1.5 10 )
2.25 10
10
i
n x
p x cm
n

= = =
( . . ).
n n p p
J e n n F = + ( . )
n n
e n F =
19 16 2
(1.6 10 )(10 )(1350)(35) 75.6 / x A cm

= =
10
Example 5 (Final Sem 1 09/10)

An n-type Silicon sample with a conductivity of 0.1 (Ocm)
-1
at 300 K.
Given:
a) Calculate the electron and hole carrier density of the material. [4 marks]

b) Calculate the Fermi level for n-type and p-type material with the same
conductivity using Joyce-Dixon approximation. [4 marks]

c) Calculate the intrinsic Fermi level for n-type and p-type of the
material. [4 Marks]

d) Sketch the flat band diagram, indicating clearly the positions
of E
c
, E
v
, E
Fn
, E
Fp
and E
i
. [4 marks]

e) How much is the energy gap has been shifted if compared to
the energy gap of 1.1 eV. [2 marks]

f) Describe why the mobility carrier in an extrinsic semiconductor
decreases with the increases of temperature. [2 marks]

11
( )
n n
q n o =
( )
p p
q p o =
1
14 3
19 2
0.1( )
6.25 10
(1.6 10 )(1000 / )
n
n
cm
n x cm
q x C cm Vs
o

O
= = =
1
15 3
19 2
0.1( )
2.08 10
(1.6 10 )(300 / )
p
p
cm
p x cm
q x C cm Vs
o

O
= = =
14 14
19 19
6
1
ln
8
(6.25 10 ) 1 (6.25 10 )
(0.026) ln
(2.78 10 ) (2.78 10 )
8
(0.026) ( 10.70) (7.95 10 )
0.278
Fn C B
C C
Fn C
Fn C
Fn C
n n
E E k T
N N
x x
E E
x x
E E x
E E eV

(
= + +
(

(
= + +
(

( = + +

=
b)
Solutions:
a)





15 15
18 18
5
1
ln
8
(2.08 10 ) 1 (2.08 10 )
(0.026) ln
(9.84 10 ) (9.84 10 )
8
(0.026) ( 8.46) (7.47 10 )
0.22
Fp V B
V V
Fp V
Fp V
Fp V
p p
E E k T
N N
x x
E E
x x
E E x
E E eV

(
= +
(

(
= +
(

( = +

= +
12
c)
14
10
exp
ln
6.25 10
ln (0.026) ln 0.276
1.5 10
Fn i
i B
Fn i
i B
Fn i B
i
E E n
n k T
E E n
n k T
n x
E E k T eV
n x
(
=
(

(

=
(

( (
= = =
( (

15
10
exp
ln
2.08 10
ln (0.026) ln 0.3078
1.5 10
i Fp
i B
i Fp
i B
i Fp B
i
E E
p
n k T
E E
p
n k T
p x
E E k T eV
n x
(
=
(

(
=
(

( (
= = =
( (


d)
0.22
0.278
0.276
0.3078
E
i

E
C

E
Fn

E
Fp

E
V

e) From the diagram (d),
EgapBefore = 1.1 eV
EgapAfter = 0.276 + 0.3078 = 0.5838 eV
AE = 1.1 - 0.5838 = 0.5162
f) At high temperatures, lattice scattering dominates as the
thermal vibrations of lattice atoms increase with T hence
increasing the probability of charge carrier-lattice
collisions. Hence, the mobility decreases as the sample is
heated.
or
The mobility, decreases with the increase in
temperature (in order to ionized the dopants) because as
the temperature rises the atoms in the crystal vibrate with
greater amplitude. In other words, the electrons scatter
from the dopants from these vibrations and mobility
decreases.


13
b) Very High Electric Field Transport:Breakdown Phenomena
(When c > 100 kV/cm, the semiconductor suffers a breakdown in which current has
runaway behavior. The breakdown occurs due to carrier multiplication means the number
of electrons and holes that can participate in current flow increase. (The total number of
electrons conserved))

i) Impact ionization or Avalanche Breakdown
In normal case during transportation,
the e
-
/holes remain in the same band.
At very high c this does not hold true.
An e
-
which is very hot scatters with
an e
-
in the valence band via coulombic
interaction and knocks it into the
conduction band as shown in Figure .
Thus the initial e
-
should have energy
slightly larger than the bandgap.
In the final state we have 2 e
-
in
the conduction band 1 hole in
the valence band.
Thus the number of current carrying
charges have multiplied.
The process is called Avalanching
The same process could happen
to hot holes.
+
-
-
-
Conduction
band
Final state
has 2 e
-

+ 1 hole
Initial state
has 1 e
-

Valence
band
Avalanche process
14
Energy band diagrams under junction-
breakdown conditions-Avalanche
multiplication.
( )
imp
dI z
I
dz
o =
( )
( ) exp( )
( )
imp
I z
N x x
I O
o = =
Once avalanching starts,
I = current
o
imp
= Average rate of
ionization per unit
distance (coefficient
for e
-
)
|
imp
= Average rate of
ionization per unit
distance (coefficients
for hole)
N = number of times an initial
electron will suffer impact
ionization after travelling
a distance x
15
ii) Band-to-band Tunneling or Zener Tunneling
When a strong c happens, the e
-
in the
valence band can tunnel into an
unoccupied state in the conduction
band or vice versa. As the e
-
tunnels, the
tunneling probability is:




F = Electric Field in the semiconductor

Example 1
Calculate the band to band tunneling probabilty
in GaAs and InAs at an applied c = 2 x 10
5
v/m.
Given:
m* (GaAs) = 0.065 m
0
m* (InAs) = 0.02 m
0
E
g
(GaAs) =1.5 eV
E
g
(InAs) = 0.4eV


(means Zener Tunneling is important when c ~2 x 10
5
V/m)
Energy band diagrams under
junction-breakdown
conditions- Tunneling effect
* 3/ 2
4 2
exp( )
3
g
m E
T
e F

=
Available
empty states
(holes) in
valence
band
Electrons in
conduction
band
30 19 3/ 2
19 34 7
4 2 0.065 0.91 10 )(1.5 1.6 10 )
exp( ) 0
3 (1.6 10 )(1.05 10 )(2 10 / )
GaAs
x x x x kg x x J
T
x x C x Js x V m

= ~
6
3.7 10
InAs
T x

=
16
b). HIGH FIELD EFFECTS (Proven thru graph)

High field transport means
Carrier velocity tends to saturate and mobility = v.F starts to decrease
(The mobility starts to decrease and becomes independent of the electric
field)
18
Figure 1
p-type semiconductor
L
Figure 2 V
Test 1 Sem 3 2011/2012

19
(a) Refer to the Figure 1 (graph) above, determine and explain whether Zener Tunneling can
happen for the GaAs (electrons) at the time scattering between the range of:

(i) 5.00 x 10
-8
s and 4.50 x 10
-8
s. [3 marks]

(ii) 1.50 x 10
-9
s and 1.00 x 10
-9
s. [3 marks]


(b) What assumption can you made as an electronic engineer from the graph above related to
the carrier drift velocity and the electric field for GaAs (Electrons)? [3marks]


(c) Figure 2 shows a p-type semiconductor with applied voltage, V of 6.0 V and the length, L of
10.0 cm. Find the mobility of the holes in this semiconductor if the drift velocity is given as
2 x 10
7
cm/s. [4 marks]

(d) An n-type Silicon sample with a resistivity of 10 Ocm at 300 K
(i) Calculate the electron carrier density of the Si Sample. [4 marks]
(ii) Calculate the Fermi level for n-type Si sample from the intrinsic Fermi level [4 marks]
(iii) Sketch the flat band diagram for part (ii) [4 marks]
(iv) How much is the energy gap has been shifted? [3 marks]
20
Figure 1
Answers:
First you need to find the scattering time of electrons at the maximum value of
carrier drift velocity with respect to the electric field for the GaAs (Electron). The
scattering time before this point will be considered at the low electric field region.
The scattering time after this point will be considered under high electric field and
can be solved thru Zener Tunneling and Avalanching breakdown theories only.
2.1 X 10
7
3.4 X 10
3
t
3

t
2

t
4

t
1

21
Note: v
d
the e
-
move in a direction opposite to the electric field while the holes move
in the same direction
3
3
3
(a i)No. From the calculation we can see that the scattering time is about 3.52 x 10
-8
s. Therefore any range that is bigger than
this value will consider that the Zener Tunneling is not happen yet.
(a ii)Yes. From the calculation we can see that the scattering time is 3.52 x 10
-8
s. Therefore any range that is smaller than
this value will consider that the Zener Tunneling will happen.
(b) After a certain point, or F around 3.4 x 10
3
V/cm, the v
d
start to slow down, showing that the voltage breakdown will
happen therefore we have to use Zener Tuneling or Avalanching breakdown theories to solve the problem.
7 30
8
19 3
6
12 8 1
1
2
1
12 2
2
2
. .
. (2.1 10 / )(0.91 10 )
3.52 10
. ( 1.6 10 )(3.4 10 / )
(2.0 10 / )
. (5.7 10 ). 4.39 10
(2.6 10 / )
(4.0 10
. (5.7 10 ).
SC
d
e
d e
SC
d e
d e
e F
v
m
v m cm s kg
s
e F C V cm
v m cm s
s
e F V cm
v m
e F
t
t
t
t

=

= = =

| |
= = =
|

\ .

| |
= =
|

\ .
6
8
2
7
12 9 3
3
4
3
6
12 9 4
4
5
4
/ )
4.56 10
(5 10 / )
(1.0 10 / )
. (5.7 10 ). 1.9 10
(3.0 10 / )
(7.0 10 / )
. (5.7 10 ). 0.32 10
(1.25 10 / )
d e
d e
cm s
s
V cm
v m cm s
s
e F V cm
v m cm s
s
e F V cm
t
t

| |
= = =
|

\ .

| |
= = =
|

\ .
22
4
4
4
3
4
( )
7 7
1
14 3
19 2
14
10
10.0
( ) . (2 10 / ). 3.33 10 / .
6.0
1 0.1( )
( )( ) 6.25 10
(1.6 10 )(1000 / )
6.25 10
( )( ) ln (0.026) ln 0.276
1.5 10
(
p
n n
n n
Fn i B
i
v v L cm
c v cm s cm V s
F V L V V
cm
d i n x cm
q q x C cm Vs
n x
d ii E E k T eV
n x

| |
= = = = =
|
\ .
O
= = = =
( (
= = =
( (

)( )
( )( ) 1.124 [(1.124/ 2) 0.276] 0.286
: % [(1.124 0.838) /(1.124)].100% 25.44%
before After
g g
d iii
d iv E E E eV
additional shifted
A = = + =
= =
2. CARRIER DIFFUSION

Objective:
There is a second mechanism, in addition to drift, that can induce a
current in a semiconductor. We can consider a classic physics
example in which a container as shown is divided into 2 parts by a
membrane. The left side contains gas molecules at a particular
temperature and the right side is initially empty. The gas molecules
are in continual random thermal motion so that, when the membrane
is broken, there will be a net flow of gas molecules into the right side
of the container. Diffusion is the process whereby particles flow from
a region of high concentration toward a region of low concentration. If
the gas molecules were electrically charged, the net flow of charge
would result in a diffusion current.

What is a diffusion current? (J)

Diffusion current will exist when there is a spatial variation of carrier
concentration in the semiconductor material. This will cause the
carriers to move from a region of high concentration to a region of
low concentration?
x= 0
24
2. CARRIER DIFFUSION
Arising from thermodynamics, when there is a gradient in the concentration of a species of
mobile particles, the particles diffuse from the regions of high concentration to the low
concentration.
Due to the random motion of the particles collision of various scattering processes
(remember, no c) in space.
Calculate the electron flux, to the right across x = x
0
at any instant of time, t.





= free path to each side of x
0
boundary in time ,
= average carrier densities in L-Region
= average carrier densities in R-Region
But,


Net Flux:

for electron

Where D
n
= diffusion coefficient of the electron system

for hole
( , ) x t |
( )
( , )
2
L R
SC
n n
x t |
t

=
SC
t
L
n
R
n
.
L R
dn
n n
dx
~
2
( , ) ( , )
( , )
2
n n
SC
dn x t dn x t
x t D
dx dx
|
t
= =
( , )
( , )
p p
dp x t
x t D
dx
| =
25
The current density, J




( , ) ( , )
( ) ( ) ( )
tot n p n p
dn x t dp x t
J diff J diff J diff eD eD
dx dx
= + =
Note: What is the difference between drift and diffusion?
Drift of carriers, driven by an electric field.

Diffusion of carriers due to their random thermal motion.
26
Example 1


Determine the carrier density gradient to produce a given diffusion current
density.
The hole concentration in silicon at T = 300 K varies linearly from x = 0 to x
= 0.01 cm. The hole diffusion coefficient is D
p
= 10 cm
2
/s, the hole diffusion
current density is J
dif
= 20 A/cm
2
, and the hole concentration at x = 0 is p = 4
x 10
17
cm
-3
. Determine the hole concentration at x = 0.01 cm.












( , ) ( , )
( ) ( ) ( )
tot n p n p
dn x t dp x t
J diff J diff J diff eD eD
dx dx
= + =
17
19
17 3
( ) (0.01) (0)
( )
0.01 0
(0.01) (4 10 )
20 (1.6 10 )(10)
0.01 0
(0.01) 2.75 10
dif p p p
p x p p
J J diff eD eD
x
p x
x
p x cm

A
(
= ~ =
(
A

(
=
(


=
27
Example 2


The electron concentration in silicon decreases linearly from 10
16
cm
-3
to
10
15
cm
-3
over a distance of 0.10 cm. The cross-sectional area of the
sample is 0.05 cm
2
. The electron diffusion coefficient is 25 cm
2
/s. Calculate
the electron diffusion current.














( )
( )
( )( )
16 15
19
2
2
10 10
1.6 10 25
0 0.10
0.36 /
For A = 0.05 cm
0.05 0.36 18
n n
dn n
J eD eD
dx x
J x
J A cm
I AJ I mA

A
= =
A
| |

=
|

\ .
=
= = =
28
Example 3

The hole concentration in silicon decreases linearly from 10
15
cm
-3
to 2x10
14
cm
-3
over a
distance of 0.10 cm (diffusion length). The cross-sectional area of this cylinder is 0.075
cm
2
. The hole diffusion coefficient is D
p
= 10 cm
2
/s.
i) Calculate the hole diffusion current (Ip).
ii)Calculate the hole diffusion current density (Jp).
iii)Calculate the radius, r of the cross-sectional area of this cylinder.
iv)Calculate the scattering time, tp for the hole.
v)How are you going to increase the current without increase the hole concentration?















( )( )( )
15 14
19
2
2
2 2
2
3
10 (2 10 )
) 1.6 10 10 0.075 0.96
0 0.10
0.96
) 12.8 /
0.075
0.075
) 0.075 0.15
) 1 10
) ' ', . ( 0.25 0.
p p
p
P
P
P p p p
p
dp x
i I eD A x mA
dx
I
mA
ii J mA cm
A cm
iii A r cm r cm
L
iv L D s
D
v increase the r i e r instead of
t
t
t t

(
= = =
(


= = =
= = = =
= = =
=
2
2
0.96
15) (0.25 ) 2.56
0.075
p
mA
I cm mA
cm
t = =
29
Example 4


The electron concentration in a sample of n-type silicon varies linearly from
10
17
cm
-3
at x = 0 to 6 x10
16
cm
-3
at x = 4 m. The electron current density is
experimentally measured to be -400 A/cm
2
. What is the electron diffusion
coefficient?














( )
( )
17 16
19
4
2
10 6 10
400 1.6 10
0 4 10
400 16
25 /
n n n
n
n
n
dn n
J eD eD
dx x
x
x D
x
D
D cm s

A
= ~
A
| |

=
|

\ .
=
=
30
Example 5 (Final Sem 1 2011/2012)


The electron concentration in a sample of n-type silicon varies linearly as
shown below. Find the electron current density, Jn at x = 1 m (1 x 10
-4
cm).
Given the electron diffusion coefficient = 25 cm/s
















0.1
5
x m
E
F
- E
i
(eV)
0
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
0.1
( ) (0.1)
5
( ) 200 (0.1)
200 0.1
exp exp
200 0.1 200 0.1
200
exp exp
F i
F i
F i
i i
B B
i i
B B B
y mx c
eV
E E eV x eV
m
eV
E E eV x eV
cm
E E x
n n n
k T k T
x x
dn d
n n
dx dx k T k T k T

= +
(
| |
= +
| (
\ .

(
= +
(

+ ( (
= =
( (


+ + ( (

= =
`
( (

)
( )
( )
4
19 10
4 3 2
200 0.1
200
exp
200(1 10 ) 0.1
200
(1.6 10 )(25) (1.5 10 ) exp
0.026 (0.026)
(4.6 10 ) exp(3.077) 9.978 10 /
n n n
n
n
i
B B
dn
J eD eD
dx
J
J
x
n
k T k T
x A cm

`

)

+ (

=
`
(


)

(
+
| |
( =
`
|
\ . (


)
= =
31
3. CARRIER INJECTION

Objective:
If electrons and holes are injected into a semiconductor, either by external contacts or by optical
excitation, the system is no more equilibrium. Now the system is called Quasi-Fermi levels
32
( )
exp
v Fp
v
B
E E
p N
k T
(

= (
(

( )
exp
Fn c
C
B
E E
n N
k T
(
=
(

Electron Density
Hole Density
( )
exp
F i
i
E E
n
kT
(
=
(

( )
exp
i F
i
E E
n
kT
(
=
(

Joyce-Dixon approximation
1
ln
8
Fn C B
C C
n n
E E k T
N N
(
= +
(

1
ln
8
V Fp B
V V
p p
E E k T
N N
(
= +
(

Boltzmann approximation
ln
Fn C B
C
n
E E k T
N
(
=
(

For n or e
-
:
ln
V Fp B
V
p
E E k T
N
(
=
(

For holes:
For n or e
-
:
For holes:
Example
Using Boltzmann statistics, calculate the position of the electron and hole
quasi-fermi levels when an e-h density of (n = p = 10
17
cm
-3
) is injected into
pure (undoped) Si. At 300 K.
Given: N
C
= 2.8 x 10
19
cm
-3
, N
V
= 1.04 x 10
19
cm
-3
, E
g
(Si) = E
C
- E
V
= 1.12 eV


For example
33
ln
Fn C B
C
n
E E k T
N
(
=
(

ln
Fn B C
C
n
E k T E
N
(
= +
(

17
19
10
(0.026) ln
2.8 10
C
E
x
(
= +
(

( 0.146)
C
E eV =
E
C
E
Fn
0.146 eV
[ln ] ( 0.121)
Fp V B V
V
p
E E k T E eV
N
= = +
E
Fp
E
V
0.121 eV
E
Fn
- E
Fp
= (E
C
E
V
)

(0.146+0.121) = 1.1 0.267 = 0.833 eV
If we had injected only n = p = 10
15
cm
-3
, the differences in the quasi-fermi
levels would be:


E
Fn
- E
Fp
= (E
C
E
V
)

(0.266 + 0.24) = 1.1 0.506 = 0.59 eV
Final Sem II 09/10

An n-type Si semiconductor at T = 300 K with an impurity ionization
energy of 0.228 eV above from the intrinsic Fermi level.

a) Find the impurity concentration (i.e the majority and minority
carrier density).
10 14 3
2 10 2
6 3
14
,
0.228
exp (1.5 10 ) exp 1.01466 10
0.025852
,
(1.5 10 )
2.21749 10
1.01466 10
n i
F F
i
B
i
Majority carrier density n
E E
n n x x cm
k T
and
Minority carrier density p
n x
p x cm
n x

(
(
= = =
(
(


(
= = =
(

:
( ) 0.228
n i i n
F F F F
Note
E E E E eV = =
b) Find the intrinsic Fermi level for the majority and minority carrier
density (use the value of n & p from part a)).
14
10
6
10
( ) ln
1.01466 10
(0.025852) ln 0.228
1.5 10
( ) ln
2.21749 10
(0.025852) ln 0.228
1.5 10
n i i n
i p p i
F F F F B
i
F F F F B
i
n
E E E E k T
n
x
eV
x
p
E E E E k T
n
x
eV
x
(
= =
(

(
= =
(

(
= =
(

(
= =
(

Note: same value of energy, i.e 0.228 eV, why? Because we are trying to find the
same level of energy but using different charge carriers, i.e n and p.
Majority (from n)
Minority (from p)
36
c) Find the Fermi level for the majority and minority carrier density
by using Joyce-Dixon approximation.
6 6
10 10
5
1
ln
8
(2.21749 10 ) 1 (2.21749 10 )
(0.026) ln
(1.5 10 ) (1.5 10 )
8
(0.026) ( 8.82) (5.22 10 ) 0.229
n
n
n
C F B
i i
C F
C F
n n
E E k T
N N
x x
E E
x x
E E x eV

(
= +
(

(
= +
(

(
= + =

14 14
19 19
6
1
ln
8
(1.01466 10 ) 1 (1.01466 10 )
(0.026) ln
(2.78 10 ) (2.78 10 )
8
(0.026) ( 12.52) (1.29 10 ) 0.325
n
n
n
C F B
C C
C F
C F
n n
E E k T
N N
x x
E E
x x
E E x eV

(
= +
(

(
= +
(

(
= + =

37
d) Sketch the flat band diagram, indicating the positions of E
c
,
E
v
, E
Fn
, E
Fp
and E
fi
.





0.7528 eV
0.3236 eV
0.228 eV
E
Fi

E
C

E
Fn

E
Fp

E
V

38
4. a) RECOMBINATION-GENERATION CENTERS PROCESSES
(the one not concern)

Happens due to Lattice defects or Impurity atoms in lattice disrupt the ideal single-
crystal lattice structure.
As a result, allowed electronic energy states within the bandgap.

These energy states may now serve as stepping stones in the recombination-
generation process.

These energy states occur near the midgap energy (as in Figure 10 & 11).
Electron-hole generation and recombination (normal case)
39
or,
Recombination via a
trapping center: (a)(1)an
electron is trapped and then
(2) a hole is trapped; (b)(1)
or hole is trapped and then
(2) an electron is trapped;
(c)(1)or an electron is
trapped and then (2) the
electron falls into an empty
state (hole)
Now, we have
Generation via a trapping
center: (1) an electron is
elevated from the valence
band into the trap creating a
free hole and then (2) the
electron is elevated into the
conduction band creating a
free electron
(a) (b) (c)
Figure 10
Figure 11
40
4.b)GENERATION AND RECOMBINATION PROCESSES (the one concern)

Generation the process whereby electrons and holes (carriers) are created.
a) Thermal Energy
By increase in temperature, the electrons will be exited from valence
band to conduction band. And the electrons will continuously exited up until
there will be a build-up of Free carriers.
Free carriers can also be generated if electrons leave a donor and go into
the conduction band.
In order to reach an equilibrium concentration there has to be recombination
as well. At equilibrium:

R
G
= the carrier generation rate
R
R
= the carrier recombination rate
= Total electron (may be functions of time or position)
= Total hole (may be functions of time or position)
=Thermal equilibrium electron concentration (independent of time and position)
= Thermal equilibrium hole concentration(independent of time and position)
= Intrinsic concentration

b) Optical Radiation (Optoelectronics)
(Excess Carriers)

When light (photon-light energy = hf) shines on semiconductor, it can cause
an electron in valence band to go into the conduction band.
The photon absorption process, a photon scatters an electron in the valence
band, causing the electron to go into conduction band.
R
G
= R
R

2
0 0 i
np n p n = =
2
0 0 i
np n p n = =
n
p
0
p
0
n
i
n
41
Creation of excess
electron and hole
densities by photons in
Generation process
Recombination of
excess carriers
reestablishing thermal
equilibrium
42
4. GENERATION AND RECOMBINATION PROCESSES (recall)

Recombination - the process whereby electrons and holes (carriers) are
annihilated.
a) Thermal Energy
By decrease in temperature, the electrons will be back to valence band.
Free carriers can also be generated from valence band going to an acceptor,
causes a hole.

b) Optoelectronics
(Excess Carriers)
The photon emmision
process, light will be
emitted when electron
go back to a hole
(valence band).








43
Conduction
band
Valence
band
Photon
Photon
+
-
Vertical in k
Photon Absorption Photon Emission
Fig. shows the band-to-band absorption in semiconductors. An electron
in the valence band absorbs a photon and moves into the conduction
band. In the reverse process, the electron recombines with a hole to emit
a photon (emission process) .
Momentum conservation ensures that only vertical transitions are
allowed.
44
The figure shows how the
excess carriers decay into
the semiconductor
Excess electron concentration =
x
Carrier
Injection
0
L
(0) n o
( ) n x o
( ) n x L o =
Carrier lifetime =
Excess hole concentration =
May be functions
of time or position
}
Example 1
Excess electrons have been generated in a
semiconductor to a concentration of
The excess carrier lifetime is . The
forcing function generating the excess carriers
turns off at t = 0 so the semiconductor is
allowed to return to an equilibrium condition
for t>0. Calculate the excess electron
concentration for

a) t=0


b) t=1s


c) t=4s

15 3
(0) 10 n cm o

=
6
0
10
n
s t

=
0
15
( ) (0) exp( )
( ) 10 exp( )
1
n
t
n t n
t
n t
s
o o
t
o

=
15 3
10 n cm o

=
14 3
3.68 10 n x cm o

=
13 3
1.83 10 n x cm o

=
0 0 n p
or t t
0
0
n n n
p p p
o
o
=
=
45
Example 2
Find the recombination rate of the excess electrons for example 1.





a)


b)


c)

Note:
1. When excess electron density ( ) is injected in p-type material. This excess minority
carriers ( ) will recombine with the majority carriers ( ) with a rate given by:



2. When excess holes density ( ) is injected in n-type material. This excess minority
carriers ( ) will recombine with the majority carriers ( ) with a rate given by:


0
( )
n
n t
R
o
t
=
15
21 3 1
6
10
10
10
R cm s

= =
14
20 3 1
6
3.68 10
3.68 10
10
x
R x cm s

= =
13
19 3 1
6
1.83 10
1.83 10
10
x
R x cm s

= =
0
( )
p
p t o
t
=
n o
p o
n p
0
( )
n
n t
R
o
t
=
p n
0
( )
p
p t
R
o
t
=
46
Diffusion length = Average distance = n p n n p p
L orL D or D t t =
Diffusion coefficient = D
Example 3
Electrons are injected into a p-type silicon sample at 300 K with the carrier lifetime is given
by 5x10
-9
s. The excess electrons have been generated in a semiconductor to a concentration
of .
a) Calculate the rate of the recombination of the excess electron (excess minority carriers
( ) ) in a p-type silicon at t = 0 s.
b) Calculate the diffusion length for the electrons if the diffusion coefficient is 30 cm
2
/s at
t = 0 s.

Ans:

a)



b)
12 3
(0) 10 n cm o

=
12
20 3 1
9
0
( ) (1 10 )
2 10
(5 10 )
n
n t x
R x cm s
x
o
t

= = =
n
2 1 9 4
(30 )(5 10 ) 3.873 10
n n n
L D cm s x s x cm t

= = =
47
Example 4

Consider a semiconductor in which and . Assume
that the excess carrier lifetime is . Determine the electron-hole
recombination rate if the excess hole concentration is .
10 3
10
i
n cm

=
6
10 s

13 3
5 10 p x cm o

=
n-type semiconductor, low-injection so that
13
6
19 3 1
5 10
10
5 10
pO
p x
R
R x cm s
o
t


'
= =
'
=
15 3
0
10 n cm

=
48
5. CONTINUITY EQUATION (critical in p-n diode & bjt) (JFYI)
(Is created due to alter of the charge transport during:)
Generation process additional of electrons & holes
Recombination process removes of the electrons and holes

The continuity equation allows us to calculate the carrier distribution in the
presence of generation and recombination.

Continuity equation Conservation of electrons and hole densities

Total rate of particle flow = Particle flow due to current (Loss due to
recombination rate + Gain due to generation rate)
Particle Current
Loss Gain
49
Figure shows current flow and generation-recombination
processes in an infinitesimal slice of thickness dx.
50
Design a uniformly doped p-type Germanium semiconductor bar with circular cross
sectional area. The semiconductor should provide a current of 3 mA under a bias
voltage of 6V. The maximum current density is to be 200 A/cm
2
. You are required
to provide the following information to the device production team:
(a) The required cross sectional area. [3 marks]
(b) The resistance of the semiconductor bar. [3 marks]
(c) The chosen doping concentration (refer to Figure 1 below) and the required
length. [4 marks]

(a) A = I/Jdrift = 3mA/200 (1) =1.5 x 10
-5
cm
2
(2)

(b) R = V/I = 6/3mA (1) = 2 k (2)

(c) R = L/e
p
N
a
A (1)

Any reasonable Na is acceptable. If Na is 10
16
cm
-3
,
p
1400 cm
2
/Vs (from the
table). (1)

L = e
p
N
a
AR=1.6 x 10
-19
x1400 x 10
16
x 1.5 x 10
-5
x 2 k (1) = 6.72 x 10
-2
cm (1)
Final Sem II 2010/2011 (10 marks)
51
Figure 1. Electron and hole mobility versus impurity concentrations for germanium,
silicon and gallium arsenide at T=300K
52
Final Sem III 2011/2012 (10 marks)
8V
As shown in Figure above, a voltage of 8 V is applied to an N-type
semiconductor with length, L of 0.04 m and cross-section area, A of 2 x 10
-2
cm
2
.
Let m
n
= 0.067m
o
. Given that the average time between collisions is 0.5 x 10
-9
s,
find out how fast the electron is moving under the influence of the electric field.
19 9
2
30
2 7
. . . .
(2)
.
(1.6 10 ) (0.5 10 )
1312 / (3)
0.067 (0.91 10 )
(2)
8
(1312 / )( ) 262400 / 2.624 10 / (3)
0.04
d sc sc
n
e e e
n
drift n n
drift
v e F e q
F m F m m
m Vs
V
v E
L
V
v m Vs m s cm s
m
t t t


= = = =

= =

| |
= =
|
\ .
= = =
53
2 18 3 19
5 2
1
2
/ (5 ) /(8 / )
5
. . .
. . . (3900 / ). (5.0 10 )(1.6 10 )
0.5
0.625
2.0 10
31200
( )
. . ( ).
d
d d
d d
d
d d
d
L V F V V cm
A
V V
R N q
N q cm Vs cm C
I A
cm
A cm
cm
L
A r if r
R N q
N will decrease

| | | |
| |
| | = = =
| | | |
| |

| |
| |
\ . \ .
\ . \ .
| |
= =
|
\ .
= | =
+
2+1
5+2










Final Sem I 2012/2013 (10 marks)

A uniformly doped n-type Ge semiconductor with the current of 0.5 A and charge
densities of 5.0 x 10
18
cm
-3
. This semiconductor has electric field and bias voltage
of 8.0 V/m and 5.0 V respectively. Find the cross-sectional area and then
comments on the required dopant if you increase the radius of this semiconductor.
[10 marks]














54
Quiz 2:
Date: 8/11/12 (Thursday)
Venue: Library
Time: 5:00 6:00 pm
Covered: Chapter 2

Test 1:
Date: 19/11/12 (Monday)
Venue: Library
Time: 9:00 11:00 am
Covered: Chapter 1 & 2