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Aerospace Fastener Applications Part 2

An Aerospace Manufacturing Perspective

Aerospace Rivets

Primarily used to fasten aerospace skins to the sub-structure Concerned mainly with shear and tension loads. Two types of rivets: Solid Rivet Blind Rivet

Aerospace Rivets

Rivets on the skin of a Boeing 737

Aerospace Solid Rivets

Aerospace Solid Rivets

Universal solid rivets on the skin of a Boeing 737

Note that they are not flush with the skin

Aerospace Solid Rivets

Countersunk solid rivets on the engine pylon of a Boeing 737

Note that these rivets are flush with the surface

Aerospace Solid Rivets

Aerospace Solid Rivets - Identification

Rivets manufactured in accordance with the AN/MS standards are identified by a four part code: 1. AN or MS specification and head type 2. one or two letters that indicate the material 3. shank diameter in 1/32nd inch increments 4. a dash followed by a number that indicates rivet length in 1/16th inch increments.

Aerospace Solid Rivets - Identification

Aircraft rivets are made of many materials, and come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes How do you select the right size? How do you select the right material? We must know what the part number tells us

Aerospace Solid Rivets - Identification

Example: rivet identification

standard universal head solid rivet Material: 2117-T4 aluminium 1/8 inch diameter 5/16 inch in length Rivet ID = either AN470AD4-5 or MS20470AD4-5


Aerospace Solid Rivets - Identification

Same rivet, different material:1100 aluminium AN470A4-5 or MS20470A4-5. AN470 or MS20470 denote the specification for universal head types AD is the material code for 2117-T4 (A=1100, B=5056, C=copper, D=2017, DD=2024, F=stainless and M=Monel) 4 = 4/32 or 1/8 inch diameter -5 = 5/16 inch length


Aerospace Solid Rivet Installation

Rivet installation summary

Drill appropriately sized holes Deburr holes Secure pieces together with Clecos Install rivet, buck with rivet gun or use a rivet squeezer


Aerospace Solid Rivet Installation

.032 2024T6 sheet aluminum to be joined with rivets Rivet gun Bucking bar Drill Drill bit and chuck key Center punch Cleco Cleco pliers


Aerospace Solid Rivet Installation

Drilling holes with a #30 drill bit Use 1/8 rivets with a #30 (.1285) drill bit


Aerospace Solid Rivet Installation

Deburr the holes by rotating (by hand) a much larger drill bit in the holes This removes any metal shavings caused by drilling


Aerospace Solid Rivet Installation

Position the pieces together and secure using Clecos Clecos maintain proper alignment of the pieces while rivets are being installed


Aerospace Solid Rivet Installation

Place the rivet in the hole Make sure you are using the correct size, material, and type of rivet


Aerospace Solid Rivet Installation

Align the rivet gun on the rivet head

Hold the bucking bar on the opposite end of the rivet

Pull the trigger on the rivet gun to hammer the rivet in place


Aerospace Solid Rivet Installation

Solid rivets can be installed using a rivet squeezer instead of a pneumatic rivet gun The squeezer is hand operated


The squeezer uses various inserts depending on the type and size of rivet being installed

Aerospace Blind Rivets

Used when you cannot physically access one side of the work Blind rivets are hollow, and thus weaker than solid rivets To retain strength of the joint: stronger material, larger diameter rivets, or more are necessary and of course 2050% heavier than a solid rivet because of steel stem


Aerospace Blind Rivets


Aerospace Rivets Fuselage Repair

Exterior of a riveted patch fuselage skin patch

Note that solid fasteners are used except in the middle of the patch Why would you use blind fasteners in this application?


Aerospace Rivets Fuselage Repair

Interior of a riveted fuselage skin patch Because the stringer on the interior of the fuselage prevents the bucking a solid rivet requires Blind rivets are the only option when access is restricted


Quality Assurance of Aerospace Fasteners

Aerospace Fasteners Material Selection Aerospace Fasteners Testing


Aerospace Fasteners Material Selection

Background Some factors to be considered before material selection are: The max. and min. operating temperatures The corrosiveness of the environment Fatigue and impact loading Always try to use standard fasteners, such as AN, MS, MIL, NAS, SAE


Aerospace Fasteners Material Selection

Alloy Steels Aluminum Titanium Stainless Steel Superalloys


Aerospace Fasteners Material Selection

Aluminum is the predominant material used in the manufacture of commercial aircraft. Table 3 lists the typical aluminum alloys used in commercial aircraft.


Basic Aerospace Fasteners Application

The basic applications (or needs) for aerospace fasteners are:

Shear Tension Fatigue Fuel tightness High temperature Corrosion control


Aerospace Fasteners Testing

Analyzing a Joint

Calculate all the load required for each type of joint failure:

Rivet Shear Sheet Tensile Bearing Sheet Shear

Failure will occur in the mode that corresponds with the lowest load carrying capability.


Aerospace Fastener Standardization

Most aerospace hardware is manufactured per government standards The three most common aircraft fastener standards used are:

AN = Air Force/Navy NAS = National Aerospace Standards MS = Military Standards


Common Standardized Fasteners

Bolts Nuts Washers Turnbuckles Cotter pins Screws Rivets Plumbing fittings (pipes and tubes)