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PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

DEVELOPMENT OF THE PERIODIC TABLE

During the nineteenth century, chemists began to categorize the elements according to similarities in their physical and chemical properties. The end result of these studies was our modern periodic table.

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE PERIODIC TABLE

Antoine Lavoisier

Johann W. Dobereiner

John Newlands

Lothar Meyer

Dimitri Mendeleev

H.J.G Moseley

ANTOINE LAVOISIER (1743-1794)


1. He drew up a list of simple a list of simple substances, or elements. 2. These elements were the building blocks of the new chemistry. 3. They included metals, such as iron and lead, and non metals, such as sulphur and carbon. 4. He classified elements into four groups.

Group I
Heat Oxygen Hydrogen Nitrogen

Group II
Carbon Sulphur Chlorine Fluorine phosphorus

Group III
Silver Lead Tin Cobalt Bismuth Zinc Nickel

Group IV
Silica Magnesia Chalk Barita Alumina

4. The classification table of Lavoisier was not accepted because it also contains; a) non-elements such as heat and light. b) Compounds such as silica, magnesia, chalk, barita and alumina.

JOHANN W. DOBEREINER (1780 1849)

1. In 1829, he classified some elements into groups of three, which he called triads. 2. In each triad, the atomic mass of the element is equal to the average mass of the first and the last element. 3. The elements in a triad had similar chemical properties and orderly physical properties.

Triad Atomic weight Average weight Triad Atomic weight Average weight

lithium 7

sodium 23

calcium 39

(7 + 39) 2 = 23 = weight of sodium calcium 40 strontium 88 barium 137

(40 +137) 2 = 88.5 almost same as strontium

4. The triad table of Dobereiner, however, was not accepted by chemists. This is because the table was only true for a few elements only.

JOHN NEWLANDS (1838 1898)


1. He put the elements in order of their atomic mass. That is he arranged the elements according to their atomic mass. 2. He found that every eighth element was similar. He called it the law of octaves. 3. However, his pattern of elements only worked for the first 15 elements know at that time. After that, he saw no links between the rest of the elements. 4. He did point out that the incompleteness might due to the possible existence of additional, undiscovered elements.

Law of Octaves

5 Newlands' claim to see a repeating pattern was met with savage ridicule on its announcement. His classification of the elements, he was told, was as arbitrary as putting them in alphabetical order and his paper was rejected for publication by the Chemical Society.

LOTHAR MEYER (1830 1895)


1. In 1870, he presented his discovery of the periodic law. 2. He stated that the properties of the elements are periodic. They follow their atomic weights. 3. This fundamental law was discovered by the Russian chemist Mendeleev. 4. He devised a method to calculate the atomic volume of an atom: Atom volume = mass of the atom of the element density

5. From the values of the atomic volume, he was able to plot graph of atomic volume against atomic mass.
6. From the graph, he could conclude that elements with similar properties occupy similar positions in their graphs.

DIMITRI MENDELEEV (1839 -1907)


1. He also tried putting the elements in order of their atomic mass. 2. He made a table of elements with the following characteristics: a) New rows were created so that elements, which were alike, could line up together in columns. b) The table had regular patterns (periodic pattern). 3. When, the pattern began to go wrong, he would leave a gap in his table.

4. For example, the chemical behavior of aluminium is similar to that of the boron, but there was no element known at that time that could fill the position below aluminium. So, he left this gap empty. He assumed that undiscovered elements will fill these gaps later. 5. Later Gallium was discovered. It has the same properties as predicted by Mendeleev. This element was found to be suitable occupy the position below aluminium as predicted. 6. Germanium was discovered in 1886. It has the properties as predicted. It was found suitable to occupy the position below silicon.

Both Mendeleev and Meyer arranged the elements

in order of increasing atomic mass.


Both left vacant spaces where unknown elements

should fit.
So why is Mendeleev called the father of the modern periodic table and not Meyer, or both?

Mendeleev... stated that if the atomic weight of an

element caused it to be placed in the


wrong group, then the weight must be wrong. (He corrected the atomic masses of Be, In, and U) was so confident in his table that he used

it to predict the physical properties of three


elements that were yet unknown.

After the discovery of these unknown

elements between 1874 and 1885, and the fact


that Mendeleevs predictions for Sc, Ga, and Ge were amazingly close to the actual values,

his table was generally accepted.

However, in spite of Mendeleevs great


achievement, problems arose when new
elements were discovered and more accurate atomic weights determined. By looking at our modern periodic table, can you identify what problems might have caused chemists a headache?

HENRY G.J MOSELEY ( 1887-1915)


1. In 1914, Henry Moseley was able to determine the positive nucleus charge of elements. We call this nuclear charge the proton number of the element. 2. Moseley arranged the elements in a table according to the increase of the proton numbers. 3. Moseleys work proved that the elements should be arranged by proton number and not by atomic weight. This is the way the elements of the periodic table are arranged today.

4. His research was halted when the British government sent him to serve as a foot soldier in WWI. He was killed in the fighting in Gallipoli by a snipers bullet, at the age of 28. Because of this loss, the British government later restricted its scientists to noncombatant duties during WWII.

NAME OF SCIENTIST Lothar Meyer Henry J. G. Moseley

CONTRIBUTION
First scientist to classify substances Classified the elements into group of three with similar chemical properties

Antoine Lavoisier

Arranged the known elements in order of increasing atomic mass . Elements with similar properties recurred at every eighth element.
Plotted a graph of the atomic volume against the atomic mass of elements Left gaps in the table to be filled by undiscovered elements Rearranging the elements in order of increasing proton number

John Newlands Johann W. Dobereiner Dimitri Mendeleev

ARRANGEMENT OF ELEMENTS IN THE PERIODIC TABLE

Elements are arranged horizontally in ascending order of their proton number , from 1 to 113 in the Periodic Table. Each vertical column of elements in the Periodic Table is known as a group. Elements with the same number of valence electrons are arranged in the same group There are 18 vertical columns of elements in the Periodic

Table known as Group 1, Group 2 until group 18.

Each horizontal row of elements in the Periodic Table is known as a period. There are 7 horizontal rows of elements in the Periodic Table. Known as Period 1, Period 2 until Period 7. Periods 1 to 3 are short periods while Periods 4 to 7 are long periods.

Although Period 6 contains 32 elements, elements with proton number 58 to 71 are listed separately at the bottom of the Periodic Table. This series is known as lanthanides.
Similarly, elements with proton number 90 to 103 in Period 7 are listed separately at the bottom of the periodic Table. This series is known as actinides.

PERIOD 1 : Contains 2 elements PERIOD 2 and 3 : Contains 8 elements respectively PERIOD 4 and 5 : Contains 18 elements each

PERIOD 6 : Contains 32 elements


PERIOD 7 : Contains 23 elements

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE ELECTRON ARRANGEMENT AND THE POSITION OF THE ELEMENT IN THE PERIODIC TABLE

NUMBER OF VALENCE ELECTRON GROUPS

1 1

2 2

3 13

4 14

5 15

6 16

7 17

8(EXCEPT
HELIUM)

18

Element in Group 1, 2 and 13 are metals Transition elements in Group 3 to 12 are also metals. Elements in Group 15,16,17 and 18 are non-metals. In Group 14: - Carbon and silicon are non-metals. - Germanium is a metalloid ( semimetal ) - Tin and lead are metals.

POSITION OF THE PERIOD OF AN ELEMENT IS EQUAL TO THE NUMBER OF SHELL OCCUPIED WITH ELECTRNS IN AN ATOM OF THAT ELEMENT

LETS TRY

PHOSPHORUS

ALUMINIUM

SODIUM

CALCULATION 1. Element D has a proton number of 19. Where is the element D located in the periodic table? 2. An atom of element E has 10 neutrons. The nucleon number of element E is 19. In which group and period is element E located in the Periodic Table? An atom of element G has 3 shells occupied with electrons. It is placed in Group 17 of the periodic table. What is the electron arrangement of atom G?

Atom Nucleon number Number of neutrons

T 31 16

U 35 18

V 40 -

a) How many valence electrons are there in atom T? b) In which group and period is element U located in the periodic table? c) Atom W forms ion W i) Suggest the electron arrangement for atom W. ii) In which period is element W located in the periodic Table?

THE ADVANTAGES OFTHE PERIODIC TABLE ARE AS FOLLOWS:

a) It enables chemists to learn and understand the

physical and chemical properties of the elements and compound more systematically, orderly and easily.

b) The properties of an element and its compounds can be predicted based on its position in the Periodic Table.
c) It becomes easier to study and understand the relationship among the elements from different groups.