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By-: Johri


What is an EV charger?
An electric vehicle charger is responsible for

recharging the battery banks in an electric vehicle or a plug-in hybrid vehicle.

EV chargers are installed in your house, office,

shopping stores and public places to enable one to charge their electric cars or plug-in hybrids.

One needs more than 1 EV charger per

vehicle as the driving distance between charges is limited and one would need to charge their electric vehicle before getting 1/1/13

The Ideal Battery Charger

The basic rule is: Charge it as soon as its

empty, and fill it all the way up. The charging rate rule is: Charge it slower at the beginning and end of the charging cycle (below 20 percent and above 90 percent).


When a lead-acid battery is either almost

empty or almost full, its ability to store energy is reduced due to changes in the cells internal resistance these periods causes gassing and increased heating within the battery, greatly reducing its life.

Attempting to charge it too rapidly during


Charging Between 0 and 20 Percent

The first 20 percent of a fully discharged

batterys charging cycle is a critical phase and you want to treat it gently. cycle, you ideally want to charge a battery at no more than this constant-current C/20 rate. To determine the first 20 percent charging current,

During the first 20 percent of the charging

Charging Current =Battery Capacity/Time C/20


Charging Between 20 to 90 Percent

In the middle of the charging cycle, you can

charge at up to the C/10 rate. This is the fastest rate that efficiently charges a lead-acid battery. more energy is wasted in heat if you recall the I2R lossesbut it gets the charging job done faster.

This rate is not as efficient as the C/20 rate

Charging current would be 20 amps at the


C/10 rate for the 200 ampere-hour battery.

Charging Between 90 and 100 Percent

C/20 rate or, ideally, switch to a constantvoltage method.

At this point, you want to drop back to the

If you switch to constant voltage set at the

deep-cycle batterys full charging value of 2.58 volts.

Current provided to the battery drops rapidly

during this last 10 percent of charging and your battery is very happy while receiving its full charge.


Charging Above 100 Percent (Equalizing Charging) It is needed to restore all cells to an equal

state-of-charge to keep the battery operating at peak efficiency. at a constant-current C/20 rate with the charging voltage limit raised to 2.75 volts.

Equalizing charging is controlled overcharging

Equalizing charging should not be done at

rates greater than C/20. Equalizing charging should be done every 5 to 10 cycles or monthly.

1/1/13 Only in well-ventilated areas (with no sparks

Some Calculations
Now lets look at the time involved in using

the ideal approach to charge our hypothetical 200 ampere-hour capacity battery:

10 amps (C/20) for 5 hours 5 50 AH 20 amps (C/10) for 7 hours 5 140 AH 10 amps (C/20) for 1 hour 5 10 AH Totals: 13 hours 5 200 AH This approach requires 13 hours to charge a

200 ampere-hour capacity battery.

Provided you dont exceed battery

Battery Discharging Cycle

Ampere-HoursThe measure of the

batterys capacity and percent stateofcharge(the area under the line in this case) are shown decreasing linearly versus time from its full charge to its full discharge value. declines from its nominal 2.1-volt fully charged value to its fully discharged value of 1.75 volts. decreases linearly (directly with the

Cell VoltageCell voltage predictably

Specific GravitySpecific gravity


Battery Charging Cycle

Ampere-HoursThis is the opposite of the

discharging case, except that you have to put back slightly more than you took out (typically 105 to 115 percent more) because of losses, heating, etc.
Specific GravitySpecific gravity increases wildly

over time as a battery is charging, so making specific gravity measurements during the charging cycle is not a good idea. At the early part of the charging cycle, specific gravity increases slowly because the charging chemical reaction process is just starting.

Cell VoltageVoltage also increases wildly over time

as a battery is charging, so making voltage measurements during the charging cycle is not a good idea either. Notice cell voltage jumps up immediately to its natural 2.1-volt value; slowly increases until 80 percent state-of-charge (approximately 2.35 volts); increases rapidly 1/1/13 90 percent state-of-charge (approximately 2.5 volts); until


How are EV Chargers or car charging stations classified? Level 1 - Plugs in to 110 V
Level 2- Plugs in to 208-240 V (220 V nominal) Level 3- Plugs in to 440 V The higher the level, the quicker the vehicle

charges. The Level 1 and Level 2 chargers are typical for home use. Level 2 charging stations will be found at retail stores, restaurants and mall. Level 3 are close to being commercial. They are being targeted for quick charge at gas stations.




Supply Needs: 208-240VAC @ 30A

GE EV Charging Station Specification

with 40A overload (2 pole) (UL 2231) (NEC 625)

GF Protection with Ground Monitor Charger & Vehicle Communication

Connection Interlock Personnel Protection Automatic De-Energizing Device Ventilation Interlock

Connection for SAE J1772 Plug &


LED Lights & Display


Discharging Chemical Reaction

anode as 2H2O

The discharging process is described at the

PbSO4+2H2O 1 SO4 1 2e g PbSO4 1

The discharging process is described at the

cathode as:

Pb 1 SO4 2e g 4 PbSO4
When discharging, the cathode acquires the

sulphate (SO4) radical from the electrolyte solution and releases two electrons in the 1/1/13 process. These electrons are acquired by the

Charging Chemical Reaction

anode as

The charging process is described at the

PbSO4 1 2H20 2e g PbO2 1 4H 1 SO4

The charging process is described at the

cathode as: PbSO4 1 2e g Pb 1 SO4

The charging process (left of Figure 8-1)

reverses the electronic flow through the battery and causes the chemical bond between the lead (Pb) and the sulphate (SO4) 1/1/13 radicals to be broken, releasing the sulphate

As charging nears completion, another

phenomenon takes place: hydrogen gas (H2) is given off at the negative cathode plate and oxygen gas (O2) is given off at the positive anode plate.
This is because any charging current beyond

that required to liberate the small amount of sulphate radicals from the plates ionizes the water in the electrolyte and begins the process of electrolysis.
While most of the hydrogen and oxygen gas

recombines 1/1/13

to form water vapour , the

Charging station
Electric vehicles typically charge from

conventional power outlets or dedicated charging stations, a process that typically takes hours, but can be done overnight and often gives a charge that is sufficient for normal everyday usage.

However with the widespread implementation

of electric vehicle networks within large cities, such as those provided by POD Point in the UK and Europe, electric vehicle users can plug in their cars whilst at work and leave them to 1/1/13 charge throughout the day, extending the

Cost of recharge
According to General Motors, as reported by

CNN Money, the GM Volt will cost "less than purchasing a cup of your favourite coffee" to recharge. drive on electricity, compared with Rs 6.24 a mile on gasoline at a price of Rs 187 a gallon.

The Volt should cost less than Rs 1 per mile to

This means a trip from Hyderabad to

Warangal would cost Rs 100 on electricity, and Rs 650 with gasoline.


Other Battery Charging Solutions

Against the numerous trade-offs available to

you with todays commercially available battery chargers, along with the additional options of the build-your-own approach (using todays advanced electronics components), are the still newer developments coming down the road for tomorrow and beyond.

Here we present brief look at each


Rapid Charging
A number of modern papers have discussed

the alternatives of rapid charging.

In short, if charging your EVs battery pack in

eight hours is good, then accomplishing the same result in four hours is better. alternating charge and discharge pulses, or just plain high-level DC to accomplish the results.

Fortunately, we can use pulsed DC current,


Induction Charging

Inductive charging(also known as

"wireless charging") uses an electromagnetic fieldto transfer energy between two objects. This is usually done with a charging station. Energy is sent through inductive couplingto an electrical device, which then can use that energy to charge batteries or run the device.

Induction chargers typically use an induction

coil to create an alternating electromagnetic field from within a charging base station, and 1/1/13 a second induction coil in the portable device

Battery swapping
There is another way to "refuel" electric

vehicles. Instead of recharging them from electric socket, batteries could be mechanically replaced on special stations just in a couple of minutes (battery swapping). metal-air fuel cells usually cannot be recharged in purely electric way. Instead some kind of metallurgical process is needed, such as aluminium smelting and similar.

Batteries with greatest energy density such as

Silicon-air, aluminium-air and other metal-air 1/1/13

Replacement Battery Packs

500 have used it for years.
When they wheel into the pits, saddle-bag-

The EV racers at the Phoenix Solar & Electric

style battery packs are dropped from their outboard mounting positions and fresh battery packs attached in their place.
This same approach, with neighbourhood

energy stations replacing gasoline stations, also has a role in the future.


Beyond Tomorrow

Nothing stops you from using rapid charging,

induction charging, and/or replacement battery pack techniques today.

Articles have even been written about how

you can charge your EV from a solar source today.

A simple lead-acid-battery-powered EV has

more than enough range to carry you to the nearest interstate highway. Once there, you punch a button on the dashboard, an inductive pickup on your EV draws energy 1/1/13

Thank you