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Auto Throttle (A/T)

NBAA 2003

Auto Throttle

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Auto Throttle (A/T)


NBAA 2003

A typical A/T system provides automatic thrust control from the start of take-off through climb, cruise descent, approach and goaround or landing. The A/T system also ensures that the engines operate within the permitted engine limits.

The A/T system has a number of operating modes that can be used from brakes release through to landing.

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A/T Mode Control Panel


NBAA 2003
A/T ARM F/D ON IAS/MACH HDG LNAV VNAV FLCH VERT SPD ALT A/P ENGAGE
L B CRS C R

2 00
OFF EPR SEL

140 5
AUTO

+2300 25
DN

15000

CMD

CMD

CMD

F/D ON

SEL BANK LIMIT HOLD UP V/S HOLD

LOC APP OFF

OFF

SPD

DISENGAGE

A/T ARM

INSTR SWITCH ALT ALERT

OFF EPR SPD

Autothrottle Disengage SwitchesBoth Sides

A/T DISC Light A/T DISC

Figure 3.15
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A/T Mode Control Panel


NBAA 2003
A/T ARM F/D ON IAS/MACH HDG LNAV VNAV FLCH VERT SPD ALT A/P ENGAGE
L B CRS C R

2 00
OFF EPR SEL

140 5
AUTO

+2300 25
DN

15000

CMD

CMD

CMD

F/D ON

SEL BANK LIMIT HOLD UP V/S HOLD

LOC APP OFF

OFF

SPD

DISENGAGE

A/T arms A/T ARM switchARM autothrottle for engagement. Autothrottle engages INSTR when EPR or SPD switch is SWITCH and when V NAV, FL CH or GA pushed, Autothrottle Disengage modes are active. OFF
SwitchesBoth Sides

EPR switch engages hold reference EPR displayed on EICAS, subject to maximum speed limits. A/T DISC Light
SPD

EPR

ALT ALERT autothrottle to A/T DISC

SPD switch engages autothrottle to hold speed or Mach indicated in IAS/MACH indicator. It cannot be engaged while in the TO thrust mode.
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A/T Mode Control Panel


NBAA 2003

A/T DISC light indicates autothrottle is disengaged, either due to malfunction, A/T ARM A/P IAS/MACH HDG ALT pushing autothrottle disengage switch,VERT SPD or raising reverse levers to theENGAGE interlock.
L C R

F/D ON

2 00

LNAV VNAV

140

+2300

15000

B CRS

CMD

CMD

CMD

OFF EPR

SEL

25

DN

F/D ON

AUTO SEL BANK LIMIT Autothrottle disengage switches disengage the autothrottle. Second push turns off OFF OFF FLCH HOLD V/S HOLD APP SPD DISENGAGE A/T DISC light. UP

LOC

A/T ARM

INSTR SWITCH ALT ALERT

OFF EPR SPD

Autothrottle Disengage SwitchesBoth Sides

A/T DISC Light A/T DISC

Figure 3.15
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Thrust Mode Control Panel


NBAA 2003

Required EPR (or N1) for the A/T EPR mode would be selected on a separate thrust mode control panel . The available thrust modes are: take-off/go-around (TO/GA) full power; climb power (CLB), plus two values of derated climb power; maximum continuous power (CON); and cruise power (CRZ).

Climb Thrust Derate Switches


TO GA CLB 1 2

Total Air Temperature Assumed Temperature Reference EPR Thrust Reference Mode
TAT+12 C 2.0 1.5 EPR 1.48 1.48 1.0 +40 C D-TO 2 2.0 1.5 1.48 1.48 1.0

TEMP SEL CON CRZ

EPR Counter EPR Pointer EPR Bug Limit EPRAmber

TEMP SEL Knob Thrust Mode Select Switches

Figure 3.16
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NBAA 2003

Thrust Mode Control Panel


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Thrust Mode Control Panel


NBAA 2003

Thrust mode select switches select the thrust mode to be used by the thrust management computer for reference EPR limit computation.
The active thrust mode and reference EPR are indicated on EICAS. With VNAV engaged, manual selection of GA, CLB, and CON is inhibited.

Climb Thrust Derate Switches


TO GA CLB 1 2

Total Air Temperature Assumed Temperature Reference EPR Thrust Reference Mode
TAT+12 C 2.0 1.5 EPR 1.48 1.48 1.0 +40 C D-TO 2 2.0 1.5 1.48 1.48 1.0

TEMP SEL CON CRZ

EPR Counter EPR Pointer EPR Bug Limit EPRAmber

TEMP SEL Knob Thrust Mode Select Switches

Figure 3.16
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Thrust Mode Control Panel


NBAA 2003

Climb thrust derate switches select either of two fixed percentage derate values for climb thrust computation.
Switch 1 selects approximately 8% derate and switch 2 selects approximately 16%.

Climb Thrust Derate Switches


TO GA CLB 1 2

Total Air Temperature Assumed Temperature Reference EPR Thrust Reference Mode
TAT+12 C 2.0 1.5 EPR 1.48 1.48 1.0 +40 C D-TO 2 2.0 1.5 1.48 1.48 1.0

TEMP SEL CON CRZ

EPR Counter EPR Pointer EPR Bug Limit EPRAmber

TEMP SEL Knob Thrust Mode Select Switches

Figure 3.16
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Thrust Mode Control Panel


NBAA 2003

TEMP SEL knob selects the assumed temperature for derated take-off thrust.
If an assumed temperature is not selected, the computer uses the higher of TAT or flat rated temperature to compute the take-off limit. The knob is active only in the take-off mode.

Climb Thrust Derate Switches


TO GA CLB 1 2

Total Air Temperature Assumed Temperature Reference EPR Thrust Reference Mode
TAT+12 C 2.0 1.5 EPR 1.48 1.48 1.0 +40 C D-TO 2 2.0 1.5 1.48 1.48 1.0

TEMP SEL CON CRZ

EPR Counter EPR Pointer EPR Bug Limit EPRAmber

TEMP SEL Knob Thrust Mode Select Switches

Figure 3.16
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Autothrottle Mode Annunciations


NBAA 2003

Autothrottle mode annunciation indicates in green that autothrottle is engaged in the displayed mode. Possible mode annunciations are EPR, SPD, FL CH, GA, IDLE, TEST and THR-HOLD. Possible limit annunciations are FLAP, ALPHA, SPD LIM. Only one limit mode is displayed at a time.

Autothrottle Mode Annunciation

Autothrottle Limit Annunciation

SPD

GS

LOC

CMD

60

20

20

Figure 3.17
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NBAA 2003

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Operation of a Typical Autothrottle System


NBAA 2003

Reduced Thrust Take-off Mode An assumed temperature is selected. The autothrottle is engaged by pressing the EPR switch. The autothrottle will engage in the TO mode and the throttles will be driven forward until reduced take-off thrust (assumed temperature) is achieved. Below 80 kt groundspeed as sensed by the IRS, the throttles are driven continuously to sustain this EPR.

Above 80 kt groundspeed, electrical power to the throttle drive motor(s) is


withdrawn, and the autothrottle mode changes to THR HOLD. Any adjustment now made by the pilot will not be countered by the autothrottle. After take off, the autothrottle can be re-engaged in an active mode by pressing the EPR button.
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Operation of a Typical Autothrottle System


NBAA 2003

Full Power Take-off Mode When conditions do not permit the use of reduced thrust, or if the pilot decides to use maximum thrust, this take-off mode can be engaged by pressing the TO/GA button. This selection overrides any assumed temperature inputs, and the engine is accelerated to the limiting EPR for the ambient conditions. THR HOLD mode and re-engagement of an active mode remain the same.

Climb Mode The thrust mode control panel offers three values of climb power; (full) climb power, Derate 1 climb power, and Derate 2 climb power, enabling the pilot to select the level of derate most suitable to the conditions of the day.
Derate1 is a reduction of about 8%, while Derate 2 reduces climb power by about16%.
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Operation of a Typical Autothrottle System


NBAA 2003

Speed Mode This mode is engaged by selecting an appropriate IAS or Mach in the AFDS speed setting window and pressing the speed mode control button. Once set, the

A/T will move the power levers as required to maintain the desired speed, within
the boundaries of allowed engine limits. Flight Level Change Mode

When the FL CH mode is engaged, the autothrottle will set climb power or
flight idle as required, depending on whether the selected altitude is above or below the aircraft.

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Operation of a Typical Autothrottle System


NBAA 2003

Go-around Mode In most systems the go-around mode is armed as a standard procedure whilst on final approach. GA is armed automatically when flap is selected or on capturing the ILS glideslope. When required, the go-around button on the throttle lever is pressed, commanding the A/T to set go-around thrust, until a satisfactory rate of climb,

about 2,000 fpm, is achieved; the autothrottle will then reduce power, to maintain
2,000 fpm at current airspeed.

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