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# ANALOG MODULATION

## PART II: ANGLE MODULATION

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What is Angle Modulation?
In angle modulation, information is
embedded in the angle of the carrier.
We define the angle of a modulated carrier
by the argument of...
s t ( ) = A
c
cos u t ( ) ( )
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Phasor Form
In the complex plane we have
t=1
t=0
t=3
Phasor rotates with nonuniform speed
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Angular Velocity
Since phase changes nonuniformly vs.
time, we can define a rate of change

This is what we know as frequency
e
i
=
du
i
(t)
dt
s t ( ) = A
c
cos 2tf
c
t + |
c
u
i
t ( )
|
\

|
.
|

du
i
dt
= 2tf
c
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Instantaneous Frequency
We are used to signals with constant
carrier frequency. There are cases where
carrier frequency itself changes with time.
We can therefor talk about instantaneous
frequency defined as
f
i
t ( ) =
1
2t
du
i
t ( )
dt
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Examples of Inst. Freq.
Consider an AM signal

Here, the instantaneous frequency is the
frequency itself, which is constant
s t ( ) = 1+ km(t) | |cos 2tf
c
t + |
c
u
i
t ( )
|
\

|
.
|

du
i
dt
= 2tf
c
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Impressing a message on
the angle of carrier
There are two ways to form a an angle
modulated signal.
Embed it in the phase of the carrier
Phase Modulation(PM)
Embed it in the frequency of the carrier
Frequency Modulation(FM)

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Phase Modulation(PM)
In PM, carrier angle changes linearly with
the message

Where
2f
c
=angle of unmodulated carrier
k
p
=phase sensitivity in radians/volt
s t ( ) = A
c
cos u
i
t ( ) ( ) = A
c
cos 2tf
c
t + k
p
m t ( )
( )
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Frequency Modulation
In FM, it is the instantaneous frequency
that varies linearly with message
amplitude, i.e.

f
i
(t)=f
c
+k
f
m(t)
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FM Signal
We saw that I.F. is the derivative of the
phase

Therefore,
f
i
t ( ) =
1
2t
du
i
t ( )
dt
u
i
t ( ) = 2tf
c
t + 2tk
f
m t ( )
0
t
}
s t ( ) = A
c
cos 2tf
c
t + 2tk
f
m(t)dt
0
t
}

(

(
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FM for Tone Signals
Consider a sinusoidal message
The instantaneous frequency
corresponding to its FM version is
m(t) = A
m
cos 2tf
m
t ( )
f
i
t ( ) = f
c
+ k
f
m(t)
= f
c
resting frequency
+ k
f
A
m
cos 2tf
m
t ( )
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Illustrating FM

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
-1
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
FM
message
Inst.frequency
Moves with the
Message amplitude
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Frequency Deviation
Inst. frequency has upper and lower
bounds given by
f
i
t ( ) = f
c
+ Af cos 2tf
m
t
( )
where
Af = frequency deviation= k
f
A
m
then
f
i
max
= f
c
+ Af
f
i
min
= f
c
Af
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FM Modulation index
The equivalent of AM modulation index is
| which is also called deviation ratio. It
quantifies how much carrier frequency
swings relative to message bandwidth
| =
Af
W
baseband
or
Af
f
m
tone
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Example:carrier swing
A 100 MHz FM carrier is modulated by an
audio tone causing 20 KHz frequency
deviation. Determine the carrier siwng
and highest and lowest carrier frequencies
Af = 20KHz
frequency swing = 2Af = 40KHz
frequency range:
f
high
=100MHz + 20KHz = 100.02MHz
f
low
=100MHz 20KHz = 99.98MHz
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Example: deviation ratio
What is the modulation index (or deviation
ratio) of an FM signal with carrier swing of
150 KHz when the modulating signal is 15
KHz?
Af =
150
2
= 75KHz
| =
Af
f
m
=
75
15
= 5
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Myth of FM
Deriving FM bandwidth is a lot more
involved than AM
FM was initially thought to be a bandwidth
efficient communication because it was
thought that FM bandwidth is simply 2Af
By keeping frequency deviation low, we
can use arbitrary small bandwidth
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FM bandwidth
Deriving FM bandwidth is a lot more
involved than AM and it can barely be
derived for sinusoidal message
There is a graphical way to illustrate FM
bandwidth
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Piece-wise approximation of
baseband
Look at the following representation
1/2W
Baseband bandwidth
=W
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Corresponding FM signal

FM version of the above is an RF pulse for
each square pulse.
The frequency of the kth RF pulse at t=t
k
is
given by the height of the pulse. i.e.
f
i
= f
c
+ k
f
m t
k
( )
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Range of frequencies?
We have a bunch of RF pulses each at a
different frequency.
Inst.freq corresponding to square pulses
lie in the following range
f
i
max
= f
c
+ k
f
m
max
f
i
min
= f
c
+ k
f
m
min
m
min

m
max

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A look at the spectrum
We will have a series of RF pulses each at
a different frequency. The collective
spectrum is a bunch of sincs
f
highest
lowest
4W
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So what is the bandwidth?
Measure the width from the first upper
zero crossing of the highest term to the
first lower zero crossing of the lowest
term
f
highest
lowest
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Closer look
The highest sinc is located at f
c
+k
f
m
p
Each sinc is 1/2W wide. Therefore, their
zero crossing point is always 2W above
the center of the sinc.
f
2W
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Range of frequenices

Above range lies
<f
c
-k
f
m
p
-2W,f
c
+k
f
m
p
+2W>
f
highest
lowest
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FM bandwidth
The range just defined is one expression
for FM bandwidth. There are many more!

B
FM
=4W+2k
f
m
p
Using |=f/W with f=k
f
m
p

B
FM
=2(|+2)W
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Carsons Rule
A popular expression for FM bandwidth is
Carsons rule. It is a bit smaller than what
we just saw
B
FM
=2(|+1)W
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Commercial FM
Commercial FM broadcasting uses the
following parameters
Baseband;15KHz
Deviation ratio:5
Peak freq. Deviation=75KHz
B
FM
=2(|+1)W=2x6x15=180KHz

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Wideband vs. narrowband
FM
NBFM is defined by the condition
f<<W B
FM
=2W
This is just like AM. No advantage here
WBFM is defined by the condition
f>>W B
FM
=2 f
This is what we have for a true FM signal

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Boundary between narrowband and
wideband FM
This distinction is controlled by |
If |>1 --> WBFM
If |<1-->NBFM
Needless to say there is no point for going
with NBFM because the signal looks and
sounds more like AM
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Commercial FM spectrum
The FM landscape looks like this
FM station B FM station A
FM station C
25KHz guardband
150 KHz
200 KHz
carrier
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FM stereo:multiplexing
First, two channels are created; (left+right)
and (left-right)
Left+right is useable by monaural
receivers
-
Left channel
Right channel
+
+
+
mono
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Subcarrier modulation
The mono signal is left alone but the
difference channel is amplitude modulated
with a 38 KHz carrier
Left channel
Right channel
+
+
+
mono
DSB-SC
f
sc
=38 kHz
+
fsc=
38KHz
freq
divider
Composite baseband
-
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Stereo signal
Composite baseband signal is then
frequency modulated
Left channel
Right channel
+
+
+
mono
DSB-SC
f
sc
=38 kHz
+
fsc=
38KHz
freq
divider
Composite baseband
FM
transmitter
-
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Stereo spectrum
Baseband spectrum holds all the
information. It consists of composite
baseband, pilot tone and DSB-SC
spectrum
38 KHz 19 KHz
15 KHz
Left+right
DSB-SC
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Stereo receiver
First, FM is stripped, i.e. demodulated
Second, composite baseband is lowpass
filtered to recover the left+right and in
parallel amplitude demodulated to recover
the left-right signal
38 KHz 19 KHz
15 KHz
Left+right
DSB-SC
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Receiver diagram

FM
receiver
lowpass
filter(15K)
bandpass
at 38KHz
X lowepass
VCO
Divide 2
X lowpass
+
+
-
+
+
+
Left+right
left
right
PLL
coherent detector
38 KHz 19 KHz
15 KHz
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Subsidiary communication
authorization(SCA)
It is possible to transmit special
programming ,e.g. commercial-free
music for banks, department stores etc.
embedded in the regular FM programming
Such programming is frequency
multiplexed on the FM signal with a 67
KHz carrier and 7.5 KHz deviation
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SCA spectrum

38 KHz 19 KHz
15 KHz
Left+right
DSB-SC
59.5 67 74.5 f(KHz)
SCA signal
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FM receiver
FM receiver is similar to the superhet
layout
RF
mixer
LO
limiter
Discrimi-
nator
deemphasis
AF power
amp
IF
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Frequency demodulation
Remember that message in an FM signal
is in the instantaneous frequency or
equivalently derivative of carrier angle

s t ( ) = A
c
cos 2tf
c
t + 2tk
f
m(t)dt
0
t
}

(

(
' s t ( ) = A
c
2tf
c
+ 2tk
f
m t ( )
| |
sin 2tf
c
t + 2tk
f
m(t )dt

t
}
|
\

|
.
|
Do envelope detection on s(t)
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Receiver components:RF
amplifier
AM may skip RF amp but FM requires it
FM receivers are called upon to work with
weak signals (~1V or less as compared to
30 V for AM)
An RF section is needed to bring up the
signal to at least 10 to 20 V before mixing
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Limiter
A limiter is a circuit whose output is
constant for all input amplitudes above a
threshold
Limiters function in an FM receiver is to
remove unwanted amplitude variations of
the FM signal
Limiter
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Limiting and sensitivity
A limiter needs about 1V of signal, called
quieting or threshold voltage, to begin
limiting
When enough signal arrives at the
receiver to start limiting action, the set
quiets, i.e. background noise disappears
Sensitivity is the min. RF signal to
produce a specified level of quieting,
normally

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Sensitivity example
An FM receiver provides a voltage gain of
200,000(106dB) prior to its limiter. The
limiters quieting voltage is 200 mV. What
is the receivers sensitivity?
What we are really asking is the required
signal at RFs input to produce 200 mV at
the output
200 mV/200,000= 1V->sensitivity

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Discriminator
The heart of FM is this relationship

What we need is a device that linearly
follows inst. frequency
f
i
(t)=f
c
+k
f
m(t)
Disc.output
f
Deviation limits
+75 KHz
-75 KHz
f
carrier

f
carrier
is at the IF frequency
Of 10.7 MHz
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Examples of discriminators
Slope detector - simple LC tank circuit
operated at its most linear response curve
This setup turns an FM signal
into an AM
f
c
f
o

output
f
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Phase-Locked Loop
PLLs are increasingly used as FM
demodulators and appear at IF output
Phase
comparator
Lowpass
filter
VCO
fin Error signal
f
vco

VCO input
Control signal:constant
When f
in
=f
vco

Output proportional to
Difference between f
in
and f
vco

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PLL states
Free-running
If the input and VCO frequency are too far apart,
PLL free-runs
Capture
Once VCO closes in on the input frequency, PLL
is said to be in the tracking or capture mode
Locked or tracking
Can stay locked over a wider range than was
necessary for capture
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PLL example
VCO free-runs at 10 MHZ. VCO does not
change frequency until the input is within
50 KHZ.
In the tracking mode, VCO follows the
input to 200 KHz of 10 MHz before losing
lock. What is the lock and capture range?
Capture range= 2x50KHz=100 KHz
Lock range=2x200 KHz=400 KHz
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Advantages of PLL
If there is a carrier center frequency or LO
frequency drift, conventional detectors
will be untuned
PLL, on the other hand, can correct itself.
PLLs need no tuned circuits
f
c
f
o

output
f
If f
c
drifts detector has no way of
correcting itself
Slope detector
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Zero crossing detector

Hard
limiter
Zero
Crossing
detector
Multi-
vibrator
Averaging
circuot
FM Output
FM input
Hard limiter
ZC detector
multiV
more frequent
ZCs means
higher inst freq
in turn means
Larger message
amplitudes
Averaging circuit
NOISE IN ANALOG
MODULATION
AMPLITUDE MODULATION
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Receiver Model
The objective here is to establish a
relationship between input and and output
SNR of an AM receiver
BPF detector
Noise n(t)
Modulated signal s(t)l
output
filter
f
c
-f
c

B
T
=2W
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Establishing a reference
SNR
Define channel SNR measured at
receiver input

(SNR)
c
=avg. power of modulated signal/
avg. noise power in the message bandwidth

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Noise in DSB-SC Receiver
Tuner plus coherent detection

BPF LPF
DSB-SC
n(t)
Cos(2fct)
x(t) v(t)
s(t)
s t ( ) = A
c
m(t)cos 2tf
c
t
( )
< s
2
t ( ) >= avg. power = A
c
2
< m
2
(t) > / 2 = A
c
2
P/ 2
P = avg. message power
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Receiver input SNR
Also defined as channel SNR:

(SNR)
c
=
A
c
2
P/ 2
WN
o
noise power in the message bandwidth
=
A
c
2
P
2WN
o
W
-W
No/2 Flat noise spectrum:white noise
Noise power=hatched area
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Output SNR
Carrying signal and noise through the rest
of the receiver, it can be shown that
output SNR comes out to be equal to the
input. Hence

Therefore, any reduction in input SNR is
linearly reflected in the output
SNR ( )
o
SNR ( )
c
=1
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(SNR)
o
for DSB-AM
Following a similar approach,

Best case is achieved for 100%
modulation index which, for tone
modulation, is only 1/3
SNR ( )
o
SNR ( )
c
=
k
2
P
1 + k
2
P
<1
k : AM modulation index
P: avg. message power
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DSB-AM and DSB-SC noise
performance
An AM system using envelope detection
needs 3 times as much power to achieve
the same output SNR as a suppressed
carrier AM with coherent detection
This is a result similar to power efficiency
of the two schemes
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Threshold effect-AM
In DSB-AM (not DSB-SC) there is a
phenomenon called threshold effect
This means that there is a massive drop in
output SNR if input SNR drops below a
threshold
For DSB-AM with envelope detection, this
threshold is about 6.6 dB

NOISE IN ANALOG
MODULATION
FREQUENCY MODULATION
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Receiver model

Noisy FM signal at BPFs output is
BFP Limiter
FM
detector
LPF
(W)
n(t)
FM
s(t)
x t ( ) = s t ( ) + n(t) =
A
c
cos 2tf
c
t + | t ( ) ( )+ r(t)cos 2tf
c
t + t ( ) ( )
noise
where
| t ( ) = m(t)dt
}
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Phasor model
We can see the effect of noise graphically
reference
|(t)
(t)
The angle FM detector will extract
A|(t)
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Small noise
For small noise, it can be approximated
that the noise inflicted phase error is
A|=[rAc]Sin(|)
So the angle available to the FM detector
is |+A|
FM Detector computes the derivative of
this angle. It will then follow that...
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FM SNR for tone modulation
Skipping further detail, we can show that
for tone modulation, we have the following
ratio

SNR rises as power of 2 of bandwidth; e.g.
doubling deviation ratio quadruples the
SNR

SNR ( )
o
SNR ( )
c
=
3
2
|
2
Bandwidth-SNR exchange
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Comparison with AM
In DSB-SC the ratio was 1 regardless.
For commercial FM, |=5. Therefore,
(SNR)
o
/(SNR)
c
=(1.5)x25=37.5
Compare this with just 1 for AM
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Capture effect in FM
An FM receiver locks on to the stronger of
two received signals of the same
frequency and suppresses the weaker one
Capture ratio is the necessary
difference(in dB) between the two signals
for capture effect to go into action
Typical number for capture ratio is 1 dB
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Normalized transmission
bandwidth
With all these bandwidths numbers, it is
good to have a normalized quantity.
Define
normalized bandwidth=B
n
=B
T
/W
Where W is the baseband bandwidth
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Examples of B
n
For AM:
B
n
=B
T
/W=2W/W=2
For FM
B
n
=B
T
/W~2| to 3|
For |=5 in commercial FM, this is a very
large expenditure in bandwidth which is
rewarded in increased SNR
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Noise/bandwidth summary
AM-envelope detection

SNR ( )
o
=

2
2 +
2
SNR ( )
c
B
n
= 2
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Noise/bandwidth summary
DSB-SC/coherent detection

(SNR)
o
=(SNR)
c
B
n
=2
SSB
(SNR)
o
=(SNR)
c
B
n
=1

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Noise/bandwidth summary
FM-tone modulation and |=5
(SNR)
o
=1.5 |
2
(SNR)
c
=37.5 (SNR)
c
B
n
~16 for |=5

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Preemphasis and
deemphasis
High pitched sounds are generally of
lower amplitude than bass. In FM lower
amplitudes means lower frequency
deviation hence lower SNR.
Preemphasis is a technique where high
frequency components are amplified
before modulation
Deemphasis network returns the
baseband to its original form
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Pre/deemphasis response
Flat up to ~500Hz, rises from 500-15000 Hz
500 Hz 2120 Hz 15KHz
-17dB
17dB
+3dB
-3dB
preemphasis
deemphasis
Deemphasis circuit
Is between the detector
And the audio amplifier
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Suggested homework
3.41
5.3
5.7