du
i
dt
= 2tf
c
1999 BG Mobasseri 5
Instantaneous Frequency
We are used to signals with constant
carrier frequency. There are cases where
carrier frequency itself changes with time.
We can therefor talk about instantaneous
frequency defined as
f
i
t ( ) =
1
2t
du
i
t ( )
dt
1999 BG Mobasseri 6
Examples of Inst. Freq.
Consider an AM signal
Here, the instantaneous frequency is the
frequency itself, which is constant
s t ( ) = 1+ km(t)  cos 2tf
c
t + 
c
u
i
t ( )

\

.

du
i
dt
= 2tf
c
1999 BG Mobasseri 7
Impressing a message on
the angle of carrier
There are two ways to form a an angle
modulated signal.
Embed it in the phase of the carrier
Phase Modulation(PM)
Embed it in the frequency of the carrier
Frequency Modulation(FM)
1999 BG Mobasseri 8
Phase Modulation(PM)
In PM, carrier angle changes linearly with
the message
Where
2f
c
=angle of unmodulated carrier
k
p
=phase sensitivity in radians/volt
s t ( ) = A
c
cos u
i
t ( ) ( ) = A
c
cos 2tf
c
t + k
p
m t ( )
( )
1999 BG Mobasseri 9
Frequency Modulation
In FM, it is the instantaneous frequency
that varies linearly with message
amplitude, i.e.
f
i
(t)=f
c
+k
f
m(t)
1999 BG Mobasseri 10
FM Signal
We saw that I.F. is the derivative of the
phase
Therefore,
f
i
t ( ) =
1
2t
du
i
t ( )
dt
u
i
t ( ) = 2tf
c
t + 2tk
f
m t ( )
0
t
}
s t ( ) = A
c
cos 2tf
c
t + 2tk
f
m(t)dt
0
t
}
(
(
1999 BG Mobasseri 11
FM for Tone Signals
Consider a sinusoidal message
The instantaneous frequency
corresponding to its FM version is
m(t) = A
m
cos 2tf
m
t ( )
f
i
t ( ) = f
c
+ k
f
m(t)
= f
c
resting frequency
+ k
f
A
m
cos 2tf
m
t ( )
1999 BG Mobasseri 12
Illustrating FM
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
FM
message
Inst.frequency
Moves with the
Message amplitude
1999 BG Mobasseri 13
Frequency Deviation
Inst. frequency has upper and lower
bounds given by
f
i
t ( ) = f
c
+ Af cos 2tf
m
t
( )
where
Af = frequency deviation= k
f
A
m
then
f
i
max
= f
c
+ Af
f
i
min
= f
c
Af
1999 BG Mobasseri 14
FM Modulation index
The equivalent of AM modulation index is
 which is also called deviation ratio. It
quantifies how much carrier frequency
swings relative to message bandwidth
 =
Af
W
baseband
or
Af
f
m
tone
1999 BG Mobasseri 15
Example:carrier swing
A 100 MHz FM carrier is modulated by an
audio tone causing 20 KHz frequency
deviation. Determine the carrier siwng
and highest and lowest carrier frequencies
Af = 20KHz
frequency swing = 2Af = 40KHz
frequency range:
f
high
=100MHz + 20KHz = 100.02MHz
f
low
=100MHz 20KHz = 99.98MHz
1999 BG Mobasseri 16
Example: deviation ratio
What is the modulation index (or deviation
ratio) of an FM signal with carrier swing of
150 KHz when the modulating signal is 15
KHz?
Af =
150
2
= 75KHz
 =
Af
f
m
=
75
15
= 5
1999 BG Mobasseri 17
Myth of FM
Deriving FM bandwidth is a lot more
involved than AM
FM was initially thought to be a bandwidth
efficient communication because it was
thought that FM bandwidth is simply 2Af
By keeping frequency deviation low, we
can use arbitrary small bandwidth
1999 BG Mobasseri 18
FM bandwidth
Deriving FM bandwidth is a lot more
involved than AM and it can barely be
derived for sinusoidal message
There is a graphical way to illustrate FM
bandwidth
1999 BG Mobasseri 19
Piecewise approximation of
baseband
Look at the following representation
1/2W
Baseband bandwidth
=W
1999 BG Mobasseri 20
Corresponding FM signal
FM version of the above is an RF pulse for
each square pulse.
The frequency of the kth RF pulse at t=t
k
is
given by the height of the pulse. i.e.
f
i
= f
c
+ k
f
m t
k
( )
1999 BG Mobasseri 21
Range of frequencies?
We have a bunch of RF pulses each at a
different frequency.
Inst.freq corresponding to square pulses
lie in the following range
f
i
max
= f
c
+ k
f
m
max
f
i
min
= f
c
+ k
f
m
min
m
min
m
max
1999 BG Mobasseri 22
A look at the spectrum
We will have a series of RF pulses each at
a different frequency. The collective
spectrum is a bunch of sincs
f
highest
lowest
4W
1999 BG Mobasseri 23
So what is the bandwidth?
Measure the width from the first upper
zero crossing of the highest term to the
first lower zero crossing of the lowest
term
f
highest
lowest
1999 BG Mobasseri 24
Closer look
The highest sinc is located at f
c
+k
f
m
p
Each sinc is 1/2W wide. Therefore, their
zero crossing point is always 2W above
the center of the sinc.
f
2W
1999 BG Mobasseri 25
Range of frequenices
Above range lies
<f
c
k
f
m
p
2W,f
c
+k
f
m
p
+2W>
f
highest
lowest
1999 BG Mobasseri 26
FM bandwidth
The range just defined is one expression
for FM bandwidth. There are many more!
B
FM
=4W+2k
f
m
p
Using =f/W with f=k
f
m
p
B
FM
=2(+2)W
1999 BG Mobasseri 27
Carsons Rule
A popular expression for FM bandwidth is
Carsons rule. It is a bit smaller than what
we just saw
B
FM
=2(+1)W
1999 BG Mobasseri 28
Commercial FM
Commercial FM broadcasting uses the
following parameters
Baseband;15KHz
Deviation ratio:5
Peak freq. Deviation=75KHz
B
FM
=2(+1)W=2x6x15=180KHz
1999 BG Mobasseri 29
Wideband vs. narrowband
FM
NBFM is defined by the condition
f<<W B
FM
=2W
This is just like AM. No advantage here
WBFM is defined by the condition
f>>W B
FM
=2 f
This is what we have for a true FM signal
1999 BG Mobasseri 30
Boundary between narrowband and
wideband FM
This distinction is controlled by 
If >1 > WBFM
If <1>NBFM
Needless to say there is no point for going
with NBFM because the signal looks and
sounds more like AM
1999 BG Mobasseri 31
Commercial FM spectrum
The FM landscape looks like this
FM station B FM station A
FM station C
25KHz guardband
150 KHz
200 KHz
carrier
1999 BG Mobasseri 32
FM stereo:multiplexing
First, two channels are created; (left+right)
and (leftright)
Left+right is useable by monaural
receivers

Left channel
Right channel
+
+
+
mono
1999 BG Mobasseri 33
Subcarrier modulation
The mono signal is left alone but the
difference channel is amplitude modulated
with a 38 KHz carrier
Left channel
Right channel
+
+
+
mono
DSBSC
f
sc
=38 kHz
+
fsc=
38KHz
freq
divider
Composite baseband

1999 BG Mobasseri 34
Stereo signal
Composite baseband signal is then
frequency modulated
Left channel
Right channel
+
+
+
mono
DSBSC
f
sc
=38 kHz
+
fsc=
38KHz
freq
divider
Composite baseband
FM
transmitter

1999 BG Mobasseri 35
Stereo spectrum
Baseband spectrum holds all the
information. It consists of composite
baseband, pilot tone and DSBSC
spectrum
38 KHz 19 KHz
15 KHz
Left+right
DSBSC
1999 BG Mobasseri 36
Stereo receiver
First, FM is stripped, i.e. demodulated
Second, composite baseband is lowpass
filtered to recover the left+right and in
parallel amplitude demodulated to recover
the leftright signal
38 KHz 19 KHz
15 KHz
Left+right
DSBSC
1999 BG Mobasseri 37
Receiver diagram
FM
receiver
lowpass
filter(15K)
bandpass
at 38KHz
X lowepass
VCO
Divide 2
X lowpass
+
+

+
+
+
Left+right
left
right
PLL
coherent detector
38 KHz 19 KHz
15 KHz
1999 BG Mobasseri 38
Subsidiary communication
authorization(SCA)
It is possible to transmit special
programming ,e.g. commercialfree
music for banks, department stores etc.
embedded in the regular FM programming
Such programming is frequency
multiplexed on the FM signal with a 67
KHz carrier and 7.5 KHz deviation
1999 BG Mobasseri 39
SCA spectrum
38 KHz 19 KHz
15 KHz
Left+right
DSBSC
59.5 67 74.5 f(KHz)
SCA signal
1999 BG Mobasseri 40
FM receiver
FM receiver is similar to the superhet
layout
RF
mixer
LO
limiter
Discrimi
nator
deemphasis
AF power
amp
IF
1999 BG Mobasseri 41
Frequency demodulation
Remember that message in an FM signal
is in the instantaneous frequency or
equivalently derivative of carrier angle
s t ( ) = A
c
cos 2tf
c
t + 2tk
f
m(t)dt
0
t
}
(
(
' s t ( ) = A
c
2tf
c
+ 2tk
f
m t ( )
 
sin 2tf
c
t + 2tk
f
m(t )dt
t
}

\

.

Do envelope detection on s(t)
1999 BG Mobasseri 42
Receiver components:RF
amplifier
AM may skip RF amp but FM requires it
FM receivers are called upon to work with
weak signals (~1V or less as compared to
30 V for AM)
An RF section is needed to bring up the
signal to at least 10 to 20 V before mixing
1999 BG Mobasseri 43
Limiter
A limiter is a circuit whose output is
constant for all input amplitudes above a
threshold
Limiters function in an FM receiver is to
remove unwanted amplitude variations of
the FM signal
Limiter
1999 BG Mobasseri 44
Limiting and sensitivity
A limiter needs about 1V of signal, called
quieting or threshold voltage, to begin
limiting
When enough signal arrives at the
receiver to start limiting action, the set
quiets, i.e. background noise disappears
Sensitivity is the min. RF signal to
produce a specified level of quieting,
normally
1999 BG Mobasseri 45
Sensitivity example
An FM receiver provides a voltage gain of
200,000(106dB) prior to its limiter. The
limiters quieting voltage is 200 mV. What
is the receivers sensitivity?
What we are really asking is the required
signal at RFs input to produce 200 mV at
the output
200 mV/200,000= 1V>sensitivity
1999 BG Mobasseri 46
Discriminator
The heart of FM is this relationship
What we need is a device that linearly
follows inst. frequency
f
i
(t)=f
c
+k
f
m(t)
Disc.output
f
Deviation limits
+75 KHz
75 KHz
f
carrier
f
carrier
is at the IF frequency
Of 10.7 MHz
1999 BG Mobasseri 47
Examples of discriminators
Slope detector  simple LC tank circuit
operated at its most linear response curve
This setup turns an FM signal
into an AM
f
c
f
o
output
f
1999 BG Mobasseri 48
PhaseLocked Loop
PLLs are increasingly used as FM
demodulators and appear at IF output
Phase
comparator
Lowpass
filter
VCO
fin Error signal
f
vco
VCO input
Control signal:constant
When f
in
=f
vco
Output proportional to
Difference between f
in
and f
vco
1999 BG Mobasseri 49
PLL states
Freerunning
If the input and VCO frequency are too far apart,
PLL freeruns
Capture
Once VCO closes in on the input frequency, PLL
is said to be in the tracking or capture mode
Locked or tracking
Can stay locked over a wider range than was
necessary for capture
1999 BG Mobasseri 50
PLL example
VCO freeruns at 10 MHZ. VCO does not
change frequency until the input is within
50 KHZ.
In the tracking mode, VCO follows the
input to 200 KHz of 10 MHz before losing
lock. What is the lock and capture range?
Capture range= 2x50KHz=100 KHz
Lock range=2x200 KHz=400 KHz
1999 BG Mobasseri 51
Advantages of PLL
If there is a carrier center frequency or LO
frequency drift, conventional detectors
will be untuned
PLL, on the other hand, can correct itself.
PLLs need no tuned circuits
f
c
f
o
output
f
If f
c
drifts detector has no way of
correcting itself
Slope detector
1999 BG Mobasseri 52
Zero crossing detector
Hard
limiter
Zero
Crossing
detector
Multi
vibrator
Averaging
circuot
FM Output
FM input
Hard limiter
ZC detector
multiV
more frequent
ZCs means
higher inst freq
in turn means
Larger message
amplitudes
Averaging circuit
NOISE IN ANALOG
MODULATION
AMPLITUDE MODULATION
1999 BG Mobasseri 54
Receiver Model
The objective here is to establish a
relationship between input and and output
SNR of an AM receiver
BPF detector
Noise n(t)
Modulated signal s(t)l
output
filter
f
c
f
c
B
T
=2W
1999 BG Mobasseri 55
Establishing a reference
SNR
Define channel SNR measured at
receiver input
(SNR)
c
=avg. power of modulated signal/
avg. noise power in the message bandwidth
1999 BG Mobasseri 56
Noise in DSBSC Receiver
Tuner plus coherent detection
BPF LPF
DSBSC
n(t)
Cos(2fct)
x(t) v(t)
s(t)
s t ( ) = A
c
m(t)cos 2tf
c
t
( )
< s
2
t ( ) >= avg. power = A
c
2
< m
2
(t) > / 2 = A
c
2
P/ 2
P = avg. message power
1999 BG Mobasseri 57
Receiver input SNR
Also defined as channel SNR:
(SNR)
c
=
A
c
2
P/ 2
WN
o
noise power in the message bandwidth
=
A
c
2
P
2WN
o
W
W
No/2 Flat noise spectrum:white noise
Noise power=hatched area
1999 BG Mobasseri 58
Output SNR
Carrying signal and noise through the rest
of the receiver, it can be shown that
output SNR comes out to be equal to the
input. Hence
Therefore, any reduction in input SNR is
linearly reflected in the output
SNR ( )
o
SNR ( )
c
=1
1999 BG Mobasseri 59
(SNR)
o
for DSBAM
Following a similar approach,
Best case is achieved for 100%
modulation index which, for tone
modulation, is only 1/3
SNR ( )
o
SNR ( )
c
=
k
2
P
1 + k
2
P
<1
k : AM modulation index
P: avg. message power
1999 BG Mobasseri 60
DSBAM and DSBSC noise
performance
An AM system using envelope detection
needs 3 times as much power to achieve
the same output SNR as a suppressed
carrier AM with coherent detection
This is a result similar to power efficiency
of the two schemes
1999 BG Mobasseri 61
Threshold effectAM
In DSBAM (not DSBSC) there is a
phenomenon called threshold effect
This means that there is a massive drop in
output SNR if input SNR drops below a
threshold
For DSBAM with envelope detection, this
threshold is about 6.6 dB
NOISE IN ANALOG
MODULATION
FREQUENCY MODULATION
1999 BG Mobasseri 63
Receiver model
Noisy FM signal at BPFs output is
BFP Limiter
FM
detector
LPF
(W)
n(t)
FM
s(t)
x t ( ) = s t ( ) + n(t) =
A
c
cos 2tf
c
t +  t ( ) ( )+ r(t)cos 2tf
c
t + t ( ) ( )
noise
where
 t ( ) = m(t)dt
}
1999 BG Mobasseri 64
Phasor model
We can see the effect of noise graphically
reference
(t)
(t)
The angle FM detector will extract
A(t)
1999 BG Mobasseri 65
Small noise
For small noise, it can be approximated
that the noise inflicted phase error is
A=[rAc]Sin()
So the angle available to the FM detector
is +A
FM Detector computes the derivative of
this angle. It will then follow that...
1999 BG Mobasseri 66
FM SNR for tone modulation
Skipping further detail, we can show that
for tone modulation, we have the following
ratio
SNR rises as power of 2 of bandwidth; e.g.
doubling deviation ratio quadruples the
SNR
SNR ( )
o
SNR ( )
c
=
3
2

2
BandwidthSNR exchange
1999 BG Mobasseri 67
Comparison with AM
In DSBSC the ratio was 1 regardless.
For commercial FM, =5. Therefore,
(SNR)
o
/(SNR)
c
=(1.5)x25=37.5
Compare this with just 1 for AM
1999 BG Mobasseri 68
Capture effect in FM
An FM receiver locks on to the stronger of
two received signals of the same
frequency and suppresses the weaker one
Capture ratio is the necessary
difference(in dB) between the two signals
for capture effect to go into action
Typical number for capture ratio is 1 dB
1999 BG Mobasseri 69
Normalized transmission
bandwidth
With all these bandwidths numbers, it is
good to have a normalized quantity.
Define
normalized bandwidth=B
n
=B
T
/W
Where W is the baseband bandwidth
1999 BG Mobasseri 70
Examples of B
n
For AM:
B
n
=B
T
/W=2W/W=2
For FM
B
n
=B
T
/W~2 to 3
For =5 in commercial FM, this is a very
large expenditure in bandwidth which is
rewarded in increased SNR
1999 BG Mobasseri 71
Noise/bandwidth summary
AMenvelope detection
SNR ( )
o
=
2
2 +
2
SNR ( )
c
B
n
= 2
1999 BG Mobasseri 72
Noise/bandwidth summary
DSBSC/coherent detection
(SNR)
o
=(SNR)
c
B
n
=2
SSB
(SNR)
o
=(SNR)
c
B
n
=1
1999 BG Mobasseri 73
Noise/bandwidth summary
FMtone modulation and =5
(SNR)
o
=1.5 
2
(SNR)
c
=37.5 (SNR)
c
B
n
~16 for =5
1999 BG Mobasseri 74
Preemphasis and
deemphasis
High pitched sounds are generally of
lower amplitude than bass. In FM lower
amplitudes means lower frequency
deviation hence lower SNR.
Preemphasis is a technique where high
frequency components are amplified
before modulation
Deemphasis network returns the
baseband to its original form
1999 BG Mobasseri 75
Pre/deemphasis response
Flat up to ~500Hz, rises from 50015000 Hz
500 Hz 2120 Hz 15KHz
17dB
17dB
+3dB
3dB
preemphasis
deemphasis
Deemphasis circuit
Is between the detector
And the audio amplifier
1999 BG Mobasseri 76
Suggested homework
3.41
5.3
5.7