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Special Casting Processes The sand moulding may be used for casting ferrous and non-ferrous metals, but these moulds can be used only once, because the mould is destroyed after the metal has solidify. This will increase the cost of production. The sand mould can not maintain better tolerance and smooth surface finish In order to meet these requirements following casting methods may be used. Permanent mould Casting. Semi- Permanent mould casting. Slush Casting. Die Casting.
Investment or lost wax casting Shell Moulding.
Permanent Mould Casting:
A casting made by pouring molting metal into a mould made of some metallic alloy. The mould is not destroyed after removing the casting and may be reused many times. The castings produced by these moulds require less skill, limited floor space. Good Surface finish and high dimensional accuracy. Less rejection than sand casting.
Used for small and medium size non-ferrous casting.
Semi-Permanent Mould Casting: It is similar to permanent mould casting except that sand cores are used at some point.
The use of sand core results in lower cost and allows cored operations of irregular shape or undercuts of such type where metal core will be too costly and difficult to handle on production basis.
.Slush Casting: Slush casting is a special application involving the use of a permanent mould. This method is only adopted for ornaments and toys of non-ferrous alloys. Lead and their alloys. Finally the mould is turned over to remove metal still in molten condition. The process is based on the solidification of molten metal by chilling effect. Silver. Aluminum. like Gold. Zink. In this process the molten metal is poured in to a metallic mould. It is used for casting low melting temperature alloy. The metal is retained in the mould long enough for the outer skin to solidify.
1. . Hot chamber die casting Machine. The casting produce is required little machining. Two types of die casting machines used for die casting. The dies are usually made in to two parts which must be locked before molten metal is forced into them under high pressure of 7 to 700MPa. 2. The ferrous metals are not die-casted because of high pouring temperature. Cold Chamber die casting Machine.Die Casting: The die casting is that casting which uses the permanent mould (Die) and the molten metal is introduced into it by means of pressure. The pressure may be obtained by the application of compressed air or by hydraulically operated piston.
The molten metal is forced in to the die cavity at pressure from 7 to 14 MPa The pressure may be obtained by compressed air or by hydraulically operated plunger. The compressed air at a pressure of about 2. It is then raised and connected to the die neck.5 to 5 MPa is now injected into goose neck to force the molten metal into the die. The hot chamber die casting machine is used for casting zinc. . In first method the goose neck is lowered into the molten metal for filling it. tin lead and other low melting alloys. In the second method the plunger acts inside cylinder formed at the end of the goose neck which is immersed in a pot of molten metal. A port is provided near the top of the cylinder to allow the entry of the molten metal. The downward stroke of the plunger pushes the molten metal through the goose neck into the die.Hot Chamber Die Casting: The hot chamber die casting machine of the submerged type.
Hot Chamber Die Casting: .
1. . magnesium. 4. More pressure is required for semi-molten alloys to compensate for reduced fluidity resulting from low temperature. The plunger forces the metal into the die cavity. This process is used for casting Aluminum. The metal is loaded in the chamber. The pressure is vary from 21 to 210MPa and in some cases may reach to 700MPa. The machine consists of a pressure chamber of cylindrical shape fitted with piston or ram that is operated by hydraulic pressure. is ejected from the die. together with slag of the excess metal. copper base alloys.Cold Chamber Die Casting: In cold chamber die casting machine the melting unit is separate and molten metal is transferred to injection mechanism by ladle. A measured quantity of molten metal is brought in to a ladle and forced in to the closed die sections by applying hydraulic pressure on piston. 3. The casting. After the metal solidifies the die is opened. 2.
Cold-chamber die casting .
The rapid and economical production of large quantities of identical parts can be achieved.Advantages of Die Casting: 1. 7. 2. 4. . Smooth surfaces and close dimensional tolerances may be produced. The rapid cooling rate produces high strength and quality in many alloys. Thin and complex shape can be casted accurately and easily. The die retains its life for longer period. 3. 5. Less floor area is required then other casting processes. The products are less defective. 6.
4. Limited range of non-ferrous alloys used for die casting. . It requires special skill in maintenance.Disadvantages of Die Casting: 1. The die casting are limited to size. 2. 3. The cost of equipments and die is high.
office equipment. toys Appliances. building hardware. ornamental castings Power tools. business equipment Source: Data from The North American Die Casting Association . parts requiring strength at elevated temperatures Plumbing fixtures.5 Cu-8. household utensils. automotive parts. 3 (4 Al) 380 200 15 230 280 160 - 3 10 5 (4 Al – 1 Cu) 320 - 7 Appliances. electrical motor frames and housings.5 Brass 858 (60 Cu) Magnesium AZ91B (9 Al – 0.Properties and typical applications of common die-casting alloys.5 APPLICATIONS Aluminum 380 (3. lock hardware. automotive parts. engine blocks. Complex shapes with thin walls. ALLOY ULTIMATE TENSILE STRENGTH (MPa) 320 YIELD STRENGTH (MPa) 160 ELONGATION in 50 mm (%) 2. building hardware. bushings.7 Zn) Zinc No. sporting goods Automotive parts.5 Si) 13 (12 Si) 300 150 2. automotive components.
sleeves. Centrifuging. . In this process the mould is made of metal and lined with refractory material or sand. The molten metal is poured by ladle into the cavity of rapidly rotating mould.Centrifugal Casting: A casting processes in which molten metal is poured and allowed to solidify while mould revolving. The centrifugal force directs the fluid metal to the inner surface of the mould with considerable pressure where solidification occurs forming hollow castings. steel gun barrels and other casting of cylindrical form. True centrifugal casting 2. Cast iron pipe. True centrifugal casting: It is used for casting of symmetrical shape. The out side of the mould is covered by water bath for quick cooling of metal. Semi. The centrifugal casting are classified as 1.centrifugal casting. 3.
Advantages of True centrifugal casting: It is a quick and economical than other method. The ferrous and non-ferrous metals can be casted by this process. feed heads. cores. The castings produced by this process have dense and fined grained structure with all impurities forced back to the centre where they can be frequently machined out. . It eliminates the use of risers.
Pipes. . and similarly shaped parts can be cast by this process. cylinder liners.Schematic illustration of the centrifugal casting process.
Due to the lower speed the pouring pressure produced is low and thus the impurities are not effectively separated from the metal. . In this process the mould is rotated about its vertical axis. If a central hole is required in the casting. and the molten metal is poured into a central sprue from where it enters the hub. The speed of rotation is less than that of true centrifugal casting.Semi-centrifugal casting: This process is used for making large size castings which are symmetrical about their own axis such as pulleys. This is due to the large size casting and there is a tendency of the molten metal to flow out of the mould joint. a dry sand central core may be used in center. From the hub it is forced outward to the rim by centrifugal force.
Schematic illustration of the semi centrifugal casting process. .
The mould cavities are not rotated about their own axis but they are rotated about the central sprue which acts as the axis of rotation. In this process a number of small cavities are made symmetrically around a common central sprue and the metal is fed to them by radial gates. .Centrifuging: The casting of irregular shape can produced and the large number of small size castings can be produced at one time.
.The pressure-casting process uses graphite molds for the production of steel railroad wheels.
Investment Casting: The castings produced by this method are within vary close tolerances and do not requires subsequent machining. water 27 to 31% and 5% alumina cement or sand with 3% or more ethyl silicate or sodium silicate around the pattern. After dipping the assembly is coated by sprinkling it with silica sand and allowed to dry. The coated wax assembly is now invested in the mould. 4. 1. First of all a metal die for casting the wax patterns is made. The procedure for investment casting. The mould are then allowed to dry in air for 2 to 3 hours. A typical slurry consists of silica flour suspended in ethyl silicate solution of suitable viscosity to produce uniform casting after drying. 2. surrounding it with a paper-lined steel flask and pouring the investment moulding mixture consisting of either sand 95%. The wax pattern and gating systems are produced from the metal dies by injection. The mould material settles by gravity and completely surrounds the pattern as the work table is vibrated. This is done by inverting the wax assembly on a table.5 to 7 MPa. The wax is injected in to the mould at 50 0C to 80 0C and pressure of 3. The wax assembly is dipped into a slurry of a refractory coating material. . 3.
5. The investment moulds may be poured under simple gravitational force or under the force of applied air pressure or by centrifugal force. . The wax is melted out of the hardened mould by heating it in an inverted position at 90 0C to 150 0C. The melted wax may be collected and re-used.The procedure for investment casting. 6. The temperature is controlled so that the mould is at a temperature desirable for pouring the particular alloy. The moulded is aging heated at the rate of 400C to 700C per hour from about 1500C to 10000C for ferrous alloys and 6500C to for aluminum alloys.
Investment casting (lost-wax process). .
This increases the cost of production. . It eliminates most machining operations including thread cutting and gear tooth forming.05 mm) are easily maintained. It produces extremely smooth surface. therefore they can not be reused. The larger objects are impractical for investment casting due to equipment size limits.Advantages of Investment Casting: The close tolerances (± 0. It is adaptable to all metallic alloy. Disadvantages of Investment Casting: The investment moulds as well as the materials from which they are made are single purpose.
Shell Moulding Process : The shell moulding process consists of making a mould that has two or more thin. The thickness of the shell is about 6mm to 18mm and is dependant on the pattern temperature. It is mixed with sand as a powder form 3 to 10 % by weight. shell like parts consisting of thermosetting resin bonded sand. Procedure for shell moulding: 1. This takes 5 to 20 seconds only. dwell time on the pattern and the sand mixture. It may be applied as a liquid and then dried on the sand grains. The box and pattern are inverted for a short time. A metal pattern heated to about 1750C to 3500C is clamped over a box containing sand mixed with thermosetting resin 2. . The mixture when comes in contact with hot pattern. it causes an initial set and builds up a coherent sand shell next to the pattern.
The time depends upon the type of resin and shell thickness. . The shell halves are assembled with clamps and supported in flask with backing material. 5. The shell mould is now ready for pouring. The assembly is removed from the oven and the shell is stripped from the pattern by ejector pins. The shell still on the pattern is cured by heating it in an oven from 2500C to 3500C for 1 to 3 minutes. The shell of resin bonded sand is retained on the pattern surface. 4. In order to obtain clean stripping a silicon parting agent may be sprayed on the pattern. The box and pattern are brought in to its original position. while the unaffected sand falls into box.Procedure for shell moulding: 3.
2. The dimensional accuracy and smooth surfaces reduces cleaning and machining cost. 3. The shell cast parts can be produced with dimensional tolerances of ± 0.Advantages of Shell Moulding: 1. A very smooth surface is obtained. The resin binder is more expensive than other binders. The initial cost of the metal patterns and other specialised equipment is high.2 mm. Disadvantages of Shell Moulding: 1. . 2.
Comparison of Casting Processes .
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