Lecture 1 – AI Background

Dr. Muhammad Adnan Hashmi

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Profile:  Name: Dr. Muhammad Adnan Hashmi  2005: BSc (Hons.) in CS – University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan  2007: MS in Multi-Agent Systems– University Paris 5, Paris, France  2012: PhD in Artificial Intelligence – University Paris 6, Paris, France. Coordinates:  Email: adnan.hashmi@ciitlahore.edu.pk
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Primary Book:  Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach (AIMA)  Authors: Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig (3rd Ed.)  Advisable that each student should purchase a copy of this book

Reference Book: 1. Artificial Intelligence (Fourth Edition) by George F Luger

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Provide a concrete grasp of the fundamentals of various techniques and branches that currently constitute the field of Artificial Intelligence, e.g., 1. Search and Knowledge Representation 2. Autonomous planning 3. Machine learning 4. Robotics etc.

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Train you into devising and implementing an AI Project.
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Homework Assignments: 15% Quizes: 5% Mid-Term: 20% Project: 20% Final: 40%

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Course overview What is AI?

A brief history of AI
The state of the art of AI

Introduction and Agents (Chapters 1,2) Search (Chapters 3,4,5,6)

Logic (Chapters 7,8,9)
Planning (Chapters 11,12) Learning (Chapters 18,20)

Views of AI fall into four categories:  Systems that act like humans  Systems that think like humans  Systems that act rationally  Systems that think rationally In this course, we are going to focus on systems that act rationally, i.e., the creation, design and implementation of rational agents.

Turing (1950) "Computing machinery and intelligence": "Can machines think?"  "Can machines behave intelligently?" Operational test for intelligent behavior: the Imitation Game

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Predicted that by 2000, a machine might have a 30% chance of fooling a lay person for 5 minutes Anticipated all major arguments against AI in following 50 years Suggested major components of AI: knowledge, reasoning, language understanding, learning.

1960s “Cognitive Revolution": Informationprocessing psychology replaced prevailing orthodoxy of behaviorism Requires scientific theories of internal activities of the brain. How to validate?  Cognitive Science: Predicting and testing behavior of human subjects  Cognitive Neuroscience: Direct identification from neurological data Both approaches are now distinct from AI, and share with AI the following characteristic:  The available theories do not explain (or engender) anything resembling human-level general intelligence.

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Normative rather than descriptive Aristotle: What are correct thought processes? Several Greek schools developed various forms of logic:  Notation and rules of derivation for thoughts (this may or may not have proceeded to the idea of mechanization) Direct line through mathematics and philosophy to modern AI Problems:  Not all intelligent behavior is mediated by logical deliberation  What is the purpose of thinking? What thoughts should I have out of all the thoughts (logical or otherwise) that I could have?

Rational behavior: doing the right thing The right thing: the optimal (best) thing that is expected to maximize the chances of achieving a set of goals, in a given situation Doesn't necessarily involve thinking, but a rational agent should be able to demonstrate it artificially, in moving towards its goal Aristotle (Nicomachean Ethics):  Every art and every inquiry, and similarly every action and pursuit, is thought to aim at some good.

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An agent is an entity that perceives and acts This course is about designing rational/intelligent agents Abstractly, an agent is a function from percept histories to actions:  f : P* -> A For any given class of environments and tasks, we seek the agent (or class of agents) with the optimal (best) performance Caveat: computational limitations make perfect rationality unachievable  So we attempt to design the best (most intelligent) program, under the given resources.

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Philosophy: Logic, methods of reasoning, mind as physical system, foundations of learning, language, rationality Mathematics: Formal representation and proof, Algorithms, Computation, (un)decidability, (in)tractability, probability Psychology: Adaptation, phenomena of perception and motor control, experimental techniques (with animals, etc.) Economics: Formal theory of rational decisions Linguistics: Knowledge representation, grammar Neuroscience: Plastic physical substrate for mental activity Control theory: Homeostatic systems, Stability, Simple optimal agent designs.

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1943 1950 1956 1952-69 1950s

McCulloch & Pitts: Boolean circuit model of brain Turing's "Computing Machinery and Intelligence" Dartmouth: "Artificial Intelligence“ adopted Look, Ma, no hands! Early AI programs, including Samuel's checkers program, Newell & Simon's Logic Theorist, 1965 Robinson's algo for logical reasoning 1966-73 AI discovers computational complexity Neural network research almost disappears 1969-79 Early development of knowledge-based systems 1980-- AI becomes an industry 1986-- Neural networks return to popularity 1987-- AI becomes a science 1995-- The emergence of intelligent agents.

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Deep Blue defeated the reigning world chess champion Garry Kasparov in 1997 No hands across America (driving autonomously 98% of the time from Pittsburgh to San Diego) During the 1991 Gulf War, US forces deployed an AI logistics planning and scheduling program that involved up to 50,000 vehicles, cargo, and people NASA's on-board autonomous planning program controlled the scheduling of operations for a spacecraft Proverb solves crossword puzzles better than most humans.

Speech technologies  Automatic speech recognition (ASR)  Text-to-speech synthesis (TTS)  Dialog systems Language Processing Technologies  Machine Translation  Information Extraction  Informtation Retrieval  Text classification, Spam filtering.

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Computer Vision:  Object and Character Recognition  Image Classification  Scenario Reconstruction etc. Game-Playing  Strategy/FPS games, Deep Blue etc. Logic-based programs  Proving theorems  Reasoning etc.

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