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**Dr. Muhammad Adnan Hashmi
**

1 January 2013

1

Knowledge-based agents Wumpus world Logic in general - models and entailment Propositional (Boolean) logic Equivalence, validity, satisfiability Inference rules and theorem proving Forward chaining Backward chaining Resolution.

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Knowledge base: Set of sentences in a formal language Declarative approach for building an agent TELL it what it needs to know Then it can ASK itself what to do - answers should follow from the KB Agents can be viewed at the knowledge level What they know, regardless of implementation Or at the implementation level Data structures in KB and algorithms that manipulate them.

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The agent must be able to: Represent states, actions, etc. Incorporate new percepts Update internal representations of the world Deduce hidden properties of the world Deduce appropriate actions.

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Performance measure: Gold +1000, Death -1000, -1 per step, -10 for using the arrow Environment: Squares adjacent to wumpus are smelly Squares adjacent to pit are breezy Glitter iff gold is in the same square Shooting kills wumpus if you are facing it Shooting uses up the only arrow Grabbing picks up gold if in same square Releasing drops the gold in same square Actuators: Left turn, Right turn, Forward, Grab, Release, Shoot Sensors: Breeze, Glitter, Smell.

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Observable? No - only local perception Deterministic? Yes -outcomes exactly specified Episodic? No - sequential at the level of actions Static? Yes -Wumpus and Pits do not move Discrete? Yes Single-agent? Yes

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Logics are formal languages for representing information, such that conclusions can be drawn Syntax defines the sentences in the language Semantics define the “meaning" of sentences, i.e., define truth of a sentence in a world E.g., the language of arithmetic x + 2 ≥ y is a sentence; x2 + y > is not a sentence x + 2 ≥ y is true iff the number x + 2 is no less than the number y x + 2 ≥ y is true in a world where x=7; y =1 x + 2 ≥ y is false in a world where x=0; y =6

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1 January 2013

Entailment means that one thing follows from another Knowledge base KB entails sentence B iff B is true in all worlds where KB is true E.g., the KB containing “the Giants won" and “the Reds won” entails “Either the Giants won or the Reds won“ E.g., x + y =4 entails 4=x + y Entailment is a relationship between sentences (i.e., syntax) that is based on semantics.

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Logicians typically think in terms of models, which are formally structured worlds with respect to which truth can be evaluated We say m is a model of a sentence B if B is true in m M(B) is the set of all models of B Then KB |= B if and only if M(KB) M(B) E.g. KB = Giants won and Reds won B = Giants won

M(B) could be also true for worlds that are different than the worlds of KB

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M(B)

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Situation after detecting nothing in [1,1], moving right, breeze in [2,1] Consider possible models for ?s, assuming only pits 3 Boolean choices, i.e., 8 possible models

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**KB = Wumpus World Rules + Observations
**

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KB = Wumpus World Rules + Observations Alpha_1 = “(1,2) is safe, KB |= Alpha_1

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**KB = Wumpus World Rules + Observations
**

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1 January 2013

KB = Wumpus World Rules + Observations Alpha_2 = “(2,2) is safe, KB |= Alpha_2 is false

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First Order Logic (FOL): Allows complete and sound inference procedures Will answer any question whose answer follows from what is known by the KB.

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Order of Precedence

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If and Only If

If S1 then S2

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If S1 is true, then I am claiming that S2 is true

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R1 R4 R5

R2

R3

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128 possible rows, only 3 make the KB true Evaluate the entailed sentences in these rows 1 January 2013

P1,2 is false for all 3; hence, no pit in P1,2

P2,2 is both false and true; hence, no conclusion can be drawn about the pit being in P2,2 31

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If KB is true, alpha is always true. Hence, I can say that alpha follows from KB

Suppose that KB=true. Then, this will become unsatisfiable only when alpha is true. Hence, I can say that alpha follows from KB

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Modus Ponens

Given that P implies Q, and I know that P is true, then I can infer Q

And Rule

Given that P AND Q is true, I can infer that P is true, and I can also infer that Q is true.

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Add P1,2

Del P1,2 Add P2,1

P2,1 already added

Add P1,2

Del P2,1

**This returns an empty clause. So, alpha is true.
**

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If this is true, and we know that the set of alphas is true, then we can infer beta.

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What you want to check whether it can be entailed (or not)

**A and B are facts (leaves) of the AND-OR graph)
**

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AND-OR Graph – Multiple links with Arcs indicate Conjunction, and without Arcs 43 indicate Disjunction

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It is sound: every inference is an application of Modus Ponens

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AI_Lecture_9

AI_Lecture_9

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