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Open System Interconnections model.

ISO( International Standards Organization) established in 1947 , dedicated to worldwide agreement on international standards.

Open System: An open system is a model that allows any two different systems to communicate regardless of their underlying architecture.

OSI Model
Communication across all types of computer systems. Layered framework 7 separate but related layers.

Layered Architecture
1. Physical 2. Data link 3. Network 4. Transport 5. Session 6. Presentation 7. Application

Peer-to-Peer Processes:
layer x on one machine communicates with layer x on another machine. It is governed by series of rules and conventions called protocols. The processes on each machine that communicate at a given layer are called peerto-peer processes.

Wrapping and unwrapping of data and network information through the layers is made possible by an interface between each pair of adjacent layers. Interface defines: Services

Organization of the Layers

Seven layers

Three subgroups

Network support layers:

Physical Data Link Network

User support layers:

Session Presentation Application

end-to-end reliable data transmission:

Transport layer

An exchange using the OSI model


Physical Layer

Responsibilities of PHYSICAL LAYER:

Physical characteristics of media Representation of bits Data rate Synchronization of bits Line configuration Physical topology Transmission mode

Physical characteristics of interfaces and media. Representation of bits. bits Electrical Signals or Optical Signals
Data rate or Transmission rate: number of bits sent each second duration of bit (how long it lasts ?)

Synchronization of bits. Sender and Receiver synchronized.




Line configuration. point-to-point configuration : Two devices are connected together through a dedicated link. multipoint configuration: link is shared between several devices.

Physical topology: Devices connected using different topologies like STAR,BUS,RING .etc. Transmission mode: Direction of transmission: simplex mode half-duplex mode full-duplex mode

Data Link Layer

The data link layer transforms the physical layer, a raw transmission facility to a reliable link. It is responsible for node-to-node delivery.

It makes the physical layer appear error free to the upper layer(network layer).

Responsibilities of DATA LINK LAYER:

Framing Physical addressing Flow Control Error Control Access Control

Framing: The data link layer divides the stream of bits received from network layer into manageable data units called frames.

Physical Addressing:

If frames are to be distributed to different systems on the network. The data link layer adds a header to the frame to define the senders and receiver of the frame.

Flow Control:

If the rate at which data are absorbed by the receiver is less than the rate at which data are produced in the sender. The data link layer imposes a flow control mechanism to avoid overwhelming the receiver.

Error Control:

The Data link layer adds reliability to physical layer by adding mechanism to detect and retransmit damaged or lost frames mechanism to recognize the duplicate frames.

Access Control:
When two or more devices are connected to the same link, data link layer protocols are necessary to determine which devices has control over the link at any given time.

Network Layer
The network layer is responsible for the source to destination delivery of a packet possibly across multiple networks. If two systems are connected to same link then there is no need for a network layer. If two systems are attached to different networks with connecting devices between them then networks often need of network layer to accomplish source to destination delivery or end-to-end delivery.

end-to-end delivery of individual packets

It does not recognize any relationship between the packets.

End-to-End Delivery

Responsibilities of NETWORK LAYER

Logical addressing Routing

Logical Addressing: If a packet passes the network boundary we need another addressing system to help distinguish the source and destination systems. The network layer add the header to the packet coming from upper layer includes logical address of sender and receiver.

Routing: When independent networks or links are connected to create internetworking, the connecting devices route packet to their final destination.

Transport Layer
The transport layer is responsible for process to process delivery of entire message. A process is an application program running on host.

Responsibilities of TRANSPORT LAYER

Service point addressing: Computer often run on several programs at a source to destination delivery not only from one computer to next but from specific process on compute to a specific process on the other. This layer includes a header called service point address.

Network get each packet to correct computer where as transport layer get entire message to correct process on that computer.

Segmentation and Reassembly: A message is divided into transmittable segments with each segment containing a segment number.
This number enables to reassemble the message correctly upon arriving at the destination and to identify and replace the packet that were lost in transmission.

Connection control: It can be connectionless or connection-oriented.


Flow control: Flow control at this layer is performed end to-end rather than single link. Error control: Error control at this layer is performed process-to-process rather than across a single link. Error correction is achieved through retransmission.

It establishes sessions between users on different machines. Responsibilities: Dialog control: Keeping track of whose turn it is to transmit.

Token management: Preventing two parties from attempting the same critical operation at the same time.
Synchronization: Check pointing long transmissions to allow them to continue from where they were after a crash.

It is concerned with the syntax and semantics of the information transmitted. It handles different data representations i.e data structures to be exchanged between the systems. It provides Data Compression. It provides Data Encryption for sensitive data transmission.

It contains a variety of protocols that are commonly needed by users. Eg: HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) which is the basis for the World Wide Web. When a browser wants a Web page, it sends the name of the page it wants to the server using HTTP. The server then sends the page back. Other Protocols: file transfer, electronic mail, network news.

Summary of the OSI Model